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Biology



Undergraduate Officers
D. Barton, B2-243, ext. 2559
M. Globus, B2-256B, ext. 2506
B. Greenberg, B2-154A
M. Griffith, B2-157B, ext. 6441
W.R. Hawthorn, B1-280, ext. 2117
N. Scott, ESC-357D, ext. 6435
R.E.H. Smith, B2-247A, ext. 2468

Courses not offered in the current academic year are listed at the end of this section.

Note:

  1. The Department of Biology reserves the right to limit enrolment in Biology courses to those individuals whose programs require those courses.
  2. Biology Courses: While the Biology Department wishes to teach all students who request its courses, the Department's resources are limited. Priority of access to crowded courses will be given to students whose academic program requires those particular courses be taken. Students who preregister late, or who neglect to preregister for a Biology course, may find there is no longer room for them.
  3. It is the student's responsibility to meet the prerequisite requirement(s) or to obtain written permission of the instructor.

BIOL100S

BIOL 111 F 2C 0.5
Introductory Biology 1
An introduction to the development of a framework of general biological concepts and connections. Emphasis will be placed on a cellular approach and will include cellular structure and processes, cell reproduction and inheritance, the human genome and recombinant DNA technology, and related aspects of immunology.
Open to students other than those intending to major in Biology or to enter the School of Optometry.
BIOL 111 cannot be counted for credit toward a joint degree in Biology and the Faculty of Environmental Studies.
May not be taken after successful completion of any 200-level Biology course.

BIOL 112 W 2C 0.5
Introductory Biology 2
An introduction to the basic principles of the structure and function of plants and animals within an ecological and evolutionary framework. The biology of multicellular organisms will be emphasized.
Open to students other than those intending to major in Biology or to enter the School of Optometry.
BIOL 112 cannot be counted for credit toward a joint degree in Biology and the Faculty of Environmental Studies.
May not be taken after successful completion of any 200-level Biology course.

BIOL200S

BIOL 201 F 2C,3L 0.5
Human Anatomy
Basic anatomical features of the skeletal, muscular, nervous, cardiovascular, endocrine and reproductive systems of the human.
Open to students other than those intending to major in Biology. Required for students enroled in Honours Science Program Two (Pre-Health- Professions Option), but not open to students in other Biology major programs. Strongly recommended for students intending to enter the School of Optometry.
BIOL 201 cannot be counted for credit toward a BSc (Kinesiology) degree.

BIOL 202 W 2C,3L 0.5
Embryology and Histology
Fundamental developmental processes in vertebrates, including humans; the development of the early embryo; morphogenesis of tissues and the major organ systems. Structure of human cells and tissues at the light-microscope level; epithelia, connective, muscular and nervous tissues and the major organ systems. Open to students other than those intending to major in Biology. Strongly recommended for students intending to enter the School of Optometry.
Antireq: BIOL 404

BIOL 210 F 2C,3L 0.5
Introductory Invertebrate Zoology
A study of the functional morphology of selected invertebrate types with special emphasis on the various grades of organization and development in the different phyla.

BIOL 211 W,S 2C,3L 0.5
Introductory Vertebrate Zoology
An introduction to the structure, evolution and development of vertebrate organ systems.
Offered during the Spring term in odd-numbered years.

BIOL 220 F 2C,3L 0.5
Plant Biology 1 - The Living Plant
An introduction to the structure, function and physiology of plants with emphasis on flowering plants.

BIOL 221 W,S 2C,3L 0.5
Plant Biology 2 - The Diversity of Plants
A Survey of Fungi, Algae and Plants A comparative survey of the morphology and life histories of the different kinds of plants and fungi important to us and an introduction to their evolution.
Offered during the Spring term in odd-numbered years.

BIOL 222 F 0.5
Non-Vascular Plants
An introductory course which will survey the evolution, morphology, ecology and importance of the fungi, algae, and bryophytes.
Offered by Distance Education only for 1994-95.

BIOL 230 F 2C,3L 0.5
Introductory Cell Biology
An introduction to the concepts of cell biology with emphasis on (1) the structural organization of the cell and its constituent organelles and (2) the function of critical molecular processes that are characteristic of living organisms.

BIOL 239 W,S 2C,3L 0.5
Genetics
The Mendelian basis of genetic analysis. Chromosomal mechanisms in mitosis and meiosis. The origin, inheritance and adaptive significance of chromosomal changes. Nucleic acids as the carriers of genetic information. Natural selection and the evolution of genetic systems.
Offered during the Spring term in even-numbered years.

BIOL 240 F 2C,3L 0.5
Fundamentals of Microbiology
Introduction to fundamental theories, principles and methods of microbiology. Structure, methods of cultivation, growth, effects of physical factors, and inhibition and killing of microorganisms will be studied.

BIOL 241 W,S 2C,3L 0.5
Introduction to the Microbial World
Biological characterization of major bacterial groups, microorganisms as geochemical agents, utilization of microorganisms by humans, and mechanisms of microbial pathogenicity.
Offered during the Spring term in odd-numbered years.

BIOL 250 F 3C 0.5
Ecology
An introduction to the study of the relationships of plants and animals to their environment. The nature of ecosystems, ecological energetics, biogeochemical cycling, community ecology, introduction to population biology. BIOL 298 is recommended for students specializing in ecology.
Antireq: ENV S 200

BIOL 273 W,S 2C,3L 0.5
Introductory Human Physiology
The physiology of the major organ systems including the nervous, muscular, circulatory, respiratory, urinary, digestive, endocrine and reproductive systems.
Antireq: SCI 351/352
Offered during the Spring term in even-numbered years.

BIOL 298 F fldlab 0.25
Field Course 1
A series of one-day field trips from campus held on Saturdays during the first half of term (omitting Thanksgiving weekend), designed to introduce students to the flora, fauna and major ecosystems of Southern Ontario. Written reports will be required for each trip.
Coreq: BIOL 250 or equivalent
Field trip fee of $75 is required towards the cost of transportation.
Minimum enrolment of 24 students is required.

BIOL300S

BIOL 301A/B F/W 3C,3L 0.5/0.5
Human Physiology
The physiology of the major organ systems of the body. The topics discussed include circulation, respiration, digestion and nutrition, metabolism, muscle, nervous systems, special senses, and the endocrine system.
No credit or grade will be given for the first term course unless the two term sequence is completed.
For Optometry students only.

BIOL400S

BIOL 402 F 2C,3L 0.5
Embryology
Fundamental processes and concepts in embryonic development including the acquisition of multicellularity, organization of the early embryo, morphogenesis of tissues, major organ systems, fetal membranes, growth, differentiation and analysis of common developmental defects.

BIOL 403 F 2C,3L 0.5
Developmental Biology
Analysis of embryonic development of selected organisms with emphasis on growth and the processes of subcellular, cellular and organ differentiation stressing recent experimental methodology.

BIOL 404 W 2C,3L 0.5
Histology and Cytology
The structure of mammalian cells, tissues and organs interpreted in functional terms. Cell reproduction and differentiation, with some discussion of the embryological origin of tissues and the regulation of tissue growth. Light and electron microscopy techniques.
Prereq: BIOl 211 or 230 or 273
Antireq: BIOL 202

BIOL 411 W 2C,3L 0.5
Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution
A history of vertebrate life on earth, a description of important fossils and a classification of the chordates.
Prereq: BIOL 211

BIOL 412 F,S 2C, 3L 0.5
Arthropod Zoology
A survey of the phylum Arthropoda, including the insects, with emphasis on their classification, interrelationships and ways of life.
Prereq: BIOL 210
Offered during the Spring term in even-numbered years.

BIOL 416 F 2C,3L 0.5
Entomology
Introduction to morphology, systematics and biology of insects. Insect collection is required as part of the course.
Brief field trips will be made to collect insects from different local habitats.

BIOL 423 W 2C,3L 0.5
Plant Physiology
A study of physiological principles that govern the water economy, mineral nutrition, transport processes and metabolism of plants with a strong emphasis on biophysical and biochemical mechanisms.
Prereq: BIOL 220 or permission of instructor

BIOL 426 W 2C,3L 0.5
Applied Phycology
Algae in human affairs and the environment. Topics examined include algal ecology; algae and organic, thermal, metal and acid pollution; cultural eutrophication; toxic algae; uses of algae for food; algal products; mass culture of microalgae and macroalgae.
Prereq: BIOL 220 or 221 or permission of instructor

BIOL 427X W 2C,3L 0.5
Environmental Physiology
A study of the physiological processes used by plants and animals to respond to changes in the physical environment. The processes of adaptation and acclimation to temperature will be examined in detail from the molecular to the organismal level.
Prereq: BIOL 250 and one of the following: BIOL 423, 436 or 470

BIOL 432X W 3C 0.5
Molecular Biotechnology 2
How recombinant DNA technology is used to produce vaccines, plant growth promoting bacteria, pharmaceuticals, crop plants and other commercial products will be discussed.
Prereq: BIOL 437 and 440 or permission of instructor

BIOL 433X W 3C 0.5
Animal and Plant Cell Biotechnology
Techniques and applications of animal and plant cell cultures to biotechnology.
Prereq: BIOL 220 and 230 or permission of instructor

BIOL 434 F 3C/S 0.5
Human Molecular Genetics
Recent advances in human molecular genetics will be examined with emphasis on (i) how molecular biology is used to locate and isolate disease-causing genes and (ii) the molecular basis of human cancer.
Prereq: BIOL 239, 437 and 440

BIOL 436 W 2C,3L 0.5
Cell Physiology
The functional organization of cells with particular reference to cell-cell interaction, the structure, function and development of organelles and the biological roles of cellular membranes.
Prereq: BIOL 230
It is recommended that students take either CHEM 233 or 237 prior to taking this course.

BIOL 437 F,S 2C,3L 0.5
Molecular Biology
Structure, expression and regulation of prokaryote and eukaryote genes, including DNA replication, transcription and protein synthesis. Introduction to recombinant DNA technology.
Prereq: BIOL 230 and 239 or permission of instructor

BIOL 438 W 3C/S 0.5
Molecular Biology of Animal Development
An examination of the current major issues in the regulation of gene expression during animal development with emphasis on technical and conceptual advances. Current research literature will be reviewed.
Prereq: BIOL 437 and 402 or 403 or permission of instructor. BIOL 440 is strongly recommended.

BIOL 439 W 3C 0.5
Biochemistry of Natural Products
The chemistry, functions and distribution of natural products including alkaloids, isoprenoids, amines, phenolics, cyanogenic glycosides and other important compounds in plants and other biological systems.
Prereq: At least one full-year course or equivalent in organic chemistry plus a one-term course in biochemistry that includes the essentials of carbohydrate and fat metabolism

BIOL 440 F,S 2C,3L 0.5
Molecular Biotechnology 1
Molecular biotechnology applies the principles of recombinant DNA technology (genetic engineering, gene cloning) to the development of commercial products. The methods of recombinant DNA technology, molecular diagnostic systems for detecting diseases and transgenic organisms will be discussed.
Prereq: BIOL 240/241 or permission of instructor. It is recommended that this course be taken after completion of second year.

BIOL 441 F 2C,3L 0.5
Immunology
Physical and biological properties of immunological agents that protect against disease, the procedures for their identification and their practical applications.
Prereq: BIOL 240/241, 273

BIOL 442 W 2C,3L 0.5
Virology
A survey of viral structures, life cycles, and the interactions of viruses with microbial and animal hosts. Laboratory experiments involve procedures used for viral detection and titration.
Prereq: BIOL 240/241 and 437 or permission of instructor

BIOL 443 F 2C,3L 0.5
Fermentation Biotechnology
Biology of industrial micro-organisms: fermentation systems; fermentation raw materials; downstream processing; biomass production; food fermentations; production of industrial chemicals, food additives, enzymes and other products by fermentation.
Prereq: BIOL 240/241

BIOL 444 W 2C,3L 0.5
Microorganisms and Disease
A study of the microorganisms involved in pathogenesis, their mode of infection, symptoms and prevention.
Prereq: BIOL 240/241
It is recommended that students take BIOL 441 prior to taking this course.

BIOL 445 W 2C,3L 0.5
Microorganisms in Foods
Food preservation, spoilage, poisoning and modern concepts in quality assurance programs are studied. The aim is to understand factors governing microbial changes in foods. Problem solving in the food industry is emphasized. Laboratory work will reflect current practices in quality control and testing.
Prereq: BIOL 240/241 or permission of instructor

BIOL 446 F 2C,3L 0.5
Microbial Ecology
A study of the ecological roles of microorganisms. Examples from freshwater, terrestrial, marine and other ecosystems will be used to illustrate the activities and importance of microorganisms in these habitats.
Prereq: BIOL 240/241 or permission of instructor

BIOL 447 W 2C,3L 0.5
Environmental Microbiology
A study of the environmental impact of microorganisms. Aspects of pollution, waste treatment, biodegradation of environmental contaminants, and nutrient cycling will be examined.
Prereq: BIOL 240/241 or permission of instructor

BIOL 449 W 2C,3L 0.5
Microbial Physiology
A study of the physiology of microorganisms including growth of cells and populations, nutrient transport systems, nutrient assimilation, biosynthesis and fueling, polymerization and assembly of cell components.
Prereq: BIOL 240/241 or permission of instructor

BIOL 450 F 3C 0.5
Marine Biology
An examination of coastal and offshore marine environments. Physical and chemical oceanography, plankton, benthos, fish and marine tetrapods are discussed.
Prereq: Any two of BIOL 210, 250 and a Biology field course or permission of instructor
Antireq: SCI 453

BIOL 451 W 3C 0.5
Limnology
A study of the Biology, Chemistry and Physics of lakes and streams, with emphasis on biological processes and their interactions with the environment. Familiarity with basic statistics and with the plant and animal kingdoms is assumed.
Prereq: BIOL 210, 220 or 221, and 250
Antireq: SCI 454

BIOL 452 F 3C 0.5
Fisheries Biology
The practices of fisheries science, including world fish supplies and potential harvests, capture methods, obtaining vital statistics of fish stocks, biological production, management and conservation, as well as the opportunities and limitations of aquaculture.

BIOL 454 F,S 2C,3L 0.5
Environmental Toxicology 1
An introduction to the basic theories, principles and techniques of environmental toxicology. A comparative study of the effects of specific groups of toxicants on ecosystems; biodegradation and cycling.

BIOL 455 F 2C,3L 0.5
Environmental Toxicology 2
Cellular, developmental and physiological effects of toxicants on multicellular organisms.
Prereq: BIOL 454

BIOL 456 W 2C,1T 0.5
Population Biology
The analysis of the structure and dynamics of plant and animal populations. Theoretical, mathematical and experimental approaches to the study of population ecology.
Prereq: BIOL 250 and STAT 202, or equivalents
Students are advised that this course involves substantial computer and numerical applications.

BIOL 457 F 2C,3L 0.5
Analysis of Communities
A study of the organization, structure and development of communities with emphasis on vegetation change. Topics include: sampling procedures; diversity; stability; succession; niche; multivariate analysis.
Prereq: BIOL 250 and STAT 202, or equivalents.

BIOL 458 F 2C,3L 0.5
Behavioural Ecology
This course will deal with the survival value of behaviour. It will concentrate on how ecological selection pressures associated with acquiring resources and reproducing influence how animals behave. A strong emphasis will be placed on the ultimate causation of behaviour i.e. the evolutionary basis for behaviour.
Prereq: BIOL 250 or permission of instructor

BIOL 459 W 3C/S 0.5
Evolution
A study of the processes of evolution; the differentiation of populations and the origin of new forms of life.
Prereq: BIOL 239

BIOL 461 W 3C 0.5
Statistics and Experimental Design
A review of elementary descriptive and inferential statistics; power analysis; an introduction to exploratory data analysis; the design and analysis of planned experiments: analysis of variance (1-way, factorial, hierarchical and blocking designs; fixed- and random-effects models); a- priori and a-posteriori comparisons; regression analysis (models 1 and 2); correlation; analysis of covariance.
Prereq: STAT 202 or equivalent
Students are advised that this course involves a substantial computer component designed to foster mastery of a modern, statistical-analysis program (Systat/Sygraph).

BIOL 470 F,S 2C,3L 0.5
Comparative Animal Physiology 1
A comparative study of the ways in which animals regulate the volume and concentration of body fluids, excrete, digest and absorb nutrients.
Prereq: BIOL 210 and 211. Prerequisites are not required by students who are enroled in the Honours Science Program 2 (Pre Health-Professions option).

BIOL 471 W 2C,3L 0.5
Comparative Animal Physiology 2
A comparative study of the sense organs and the nervous, endocrine, circulatory and respiratory systems. The lectures emphasize development and function of regulatory processes and include examples of vertebrate adaptations to high altitude and diving.
Prereq: BIOL 273

BIOL 473X W 2C,3L 0.5
Vertebrate Reproductive Physiology (formerly Mammalian Reproductive Physiology)
A study of the endocrine and reproductive systems of vertebrates. Major topics include hormone secretion, mechanism of hormone action, hypothalamic regulation of pituitary function, ovarian and testicular physiology, hormone assays, gametogenesis and fertilization.
Prereq: BIOL 273 recommended

BIOL 481 W 2C,3L 0.5
Introductory Quaternary Ecology
An introduction to Quaternary ecology. The morphology, biostratigraphy, distribution and paleoecological significance of major plant and animal groups in the Quaternary sciences. Relationships of fossil assemblages to modern ecosystems. Students will be expected to arrange with the instructors a field trip in the preceding term.
Prereq: EARTH 440 or consent of instructors
Cross-listed as EARTH 441

BIOL 490A/B F,W,S fldlab 0.5/0.5
Field Course in Marine Biology
A two-week study of marine environments and biota. Emphasis on the flora and fauna of rocky shores, mud flats, and the sub-tidal benthos. Grade based on a field notebook and a research project. This course will normally be held at Huntsman Marine Lab, New Brunswick each September. Courses sponsored by Ontario Universities at other times of the year may also qualify.
Prereq: BIOL 210, 250 or equivalent
Field trip fee: $400-$1500

BIOL 491A/B F,W,S fldlab 0.5/0.5
Field Course in Terrestrial and Aquatic Biology
A two-week study of the flora and fauna of terrestrial environments, lakes and streams. Emphasis on biosystematics, distribution and dynamics of organisms. Both population and community approaches are stressed. This course will normally be held in Algonquin Park, Ontario each September. Courses sponsored by Ontario Universities at other times of the year also qualify.
Prereq: BIOL 250 or equivalent
Field trip fee: $300-$700

BIOL 492 F,W,S fldlab 0.5
Introduction to Marine Mammals
A two-week field course at the Huntsman Marine Laboratory, St. Andrews, NB. The course has a strong emphasis on field research and each student must complete a research project. Lectures will introduce the evolution, zoogeography, ecology and behaviour of whales, seals and sireans. Additionally, marine-mammal fisheries will be dealt with in both lecture and laboratory work.
This course will normally be offered during the first two weeks of August in even-numbered years.

BIOL 493 F,W,S fldlab 0.5
Mycology
Fungal taxonomy and ecology; medical mycology; plant pathology; industrial applications; food and food processing; toxins and hallucinogens; biological control; fungi as coprophiles, predators and symbionts with plants and animals.
Prereq: BIOL 221
Antireq: BIOL 422
This course will normally be an intensive field course held in Algonquin Park, Ontario each September.

BIOL 498A/B F,W,S fldlab 0.25/0.25
Field Course 2
A general interest field course usually of one week duration. Requirement is met by attending the first week only of a two-week trip arranged or approved by the Department (e.g. BIOL 490 or 491). Courses sponsored by Ontario Universities at other times of the year may also qualify.
Coreq: BIOL 250 or equivalent
Field trip fee: $100-$300

BIOL 499A/B F,W,S 6L 0.5/0.5
Senior Honours Project
A senior-year research project. Normally, only students attaining a 70% cumulative major average will be accepted into this course. Students are referred to the co-ordinator for BIOL 499 for further details.
A final grade for BIOL 499A will be submitted only after completion of 499B.

Courses not offered 1995-96
BIOL 410 Invertebrate Zoology
BIOL 420 The Flora of Canada
BIOL 421 Plant Anatomy and Morphogenesis
BIOL 424 Ferns, Gymnosperms and Fern Allies: An Evolutionary Survvey
BIOL 425 The Flowering Plants
BIOL 428 Plant Growth Regulation: Biochemical and Molecular Perspectives
BIOL 448 Microbial Physiology 1
BIOL 472 Comparative Animal Physiology 3

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