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Earth Sciences


The following programs are offered in the Earth Sciences Department:

Honours Major Programs
Regular
Honours Earth Sciences (Geology Option)
Honours Earth Sciences (Geography Option)

Co-operative
Co-op Applied Earth Sciences (Environmental Hydrogeology Option)
Co-op Applied Earth Sciences (Geology Option)
Co-op Applied Earth Sciences (Geophysics Option)

Honours Science Program Four (with a specialization in Earth Sciences)

Minor in Earth Sciences

The first five programs provide academic preparation for students intending to pursue careers as professional geologists. Honours Science, with a specialization in Earth Sciences, provides a less intense specialization in Earth Sciences and is intended primarily for those wanting a geological background for careers in other areas, e.g. teaching, business management, civic administration, finance, specialized sales, agriculture, etc.

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Honours Major Programs

Admission to, and continuance in, all Earth Sciences Honours Major Programs requires an overall cumulative average of 60%, and a cumulative major average of 65%.

In order to graduate in any of the five Honours Major Programs, the following requirements must be met:

  1. Successful completion of 42 one-term courses (plus additional Year One and Two labs).
  2. In Year One and Two, Science courses must be taken with the lab if an optional lab is available.
  3. Failure of more than one course in the field of specialization will result in the requirement to withdraw from the program.
  4. Mandatory courses as listed under the specific programs.


A breakdown of course-type groupings for each program is provided below:
              Co-op      Co-op       Co-op     Regular     Regular
             Applied    Applied     Applied    Honours     Honours
              Earth      Earth       Earth      Earth       Earth      Honours
            Sciences/  Sciences/   Sciences/  Sciences/   Sciences/   Sciences
             Geology  Geophysics Hydrogeology  Geology    Geography    Program
              Option     Option      Option     Option      Option       Four

100-level Science/Math 7 8 7 7 5 7 Core Arts Core 1 1 1 1 1 1 Earth Sciences 25 23 21 25 21 20 200-level or higher Mathematics, - 2 6 - - - Science, Engineering Geography/ Environmental - - 1 - 10 - Studies Science/ Mathematics 4 6 2 4 - 4 Electives1 Arts Elective 2 1 2 2 2 2 Unrestricted 3 1 2 3 3 8 Elective Total Term 42 42 42 42 42 42 Courses Non-credit 2 2 2 2 2 - field courses
1 Normally excludes SCI and EARTH courses (Hydrogeology Option students may take EARTH courses); optional Labs must be taken. Students who plan to do graduate work in Hydrogeology are advised to take CIV E 221 during their fourth year.

Students in programs other than the Geophysics Option may count one Geography remote sensing course as a Science/Mathematics elective; Geophysics Option students may count up to three Geography remote sensing courses under this category.

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Honours Major Programs - Regular

Honours Earth Sciences (Geology Option)

Year One
EARTH 121/122 and 121L/122L
CHEM 120/123 and 120L/123L
PHYS 121/122 and 121L/122L
CS 102
MATH 107/108
One elective (0.5 credit)

Year Two
EARTH 221, 231, 232, 235, 236, 238, 260
ENGL 210C
Two electives (1.0 credit)

Year Three
EARTH 331, 332, 333, 336, 342, 345, 355, 370, 390
Four electives (2.0 credits)

Year Four
EARTH 427, 436A/B, 490
Five term courses from: EARTH 358, 421, 432, 433, 434, 435, 437, 438, 440, 456, 458, 459, 460, 470
Two electives (1.0 credit) not from Earth Sciences

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Honours Earth Sciences (Geography Option)

In addition to the requirements for all Honours Major programs listed above, Honours Earth Sciences/Geography Option students must meet the following requirements:

  1. In addition to the 42 term courses required for credit, two field courses must be taken.
  2. Students must maintain a 70% average in all Geography courses.

Geography Electives

In selecting 200-, 300-, and 400-level Geography courses, students are encouraged to choose a sequence of term courses from disciplines within Geography, such as Remote Sensing, Resource Management, etc.


Year One
EARTH 121/122, 121L/122L
CHEM 120/123 and 120L/123L
GEOG 101/102
CS 102
either PHYS 111/112 and 111L/112L or BIOL 111/112 or equivalent, plus one elective (0.5 credit)

Year Two
EARTH 221, 231, 232, 235, 236, 238
ENV S 200
GEOG 202A and one of GEOG 208, 275 or 309
One elective (0.5 credit)

Year Three
EARTH 331, 332, 333, 336, 342, 345, 370, 390
ENGL 210C
Two Geography electives (1.0 credit)
Two unrestricted electives (1.0 credit)

Year Four
EARTH 427, 436A/B, 440, 490, plus two term courses from 400-level Earth Sciences courses
Three Geography electives (1.5 credits) from 300- or 400-level courses
One unrestricted elective (0.5 credit)

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Co-operative Applied Earth Sciences

The Co-operative Applied Earth Sciences programs offer a good academic training, as well as considerable practical experience.

Work term reports must be submitted within three weeks of the first day of lectures of the following academic term. Normally a work-term report must be prepared during a student's first work term. Two satisfactory reports must have been received before the student commences work term 3B. Four satisfactory reports must have been received by academic term 4A. See "Department of Co-operative Educations and Career Services" for further information regarding the Co-operative system of study, and for the Co-op chart outlining the normal progression for Co-operative Earth Sciences students.

Transfer to a Regular Honours program will be permitted if all requirements of the Co-op program have been met up to the time of the transfer.

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Co-operative Applied Earth Sciences
(Geology Option)

Year One
EARTH 121/122 and 121L/122L
CHEM 120/123 and 120L/123L
PHYS 121/122 and 121L/122L
CS 102
MATH 107/108
One elective (0.5 credit)

Year Two
2A

EARTH 231, 235, 236, 260
One elective (0.5 credit)

2B
EARTH 221, 232, 238
ENGL 210C
One elective (0.5 credit)


Year Three
3A

EARTH 332, 333, 345, 370, 390
Two electives (1.0 credit)

3B
EARTH 331, 336, 342, 355
Two electives (1.0 credit)


Year Four
Identical to the regular program in Honours Earth Sciences (see above)

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Co-operative Applied Earth Sciences
(Geophysics Option)

This Co-op program supplements the core Geology courses with courses from Physics, Math, Computer Science and Engineering. It aims to graduate earth scientists with a strong background in the techniques of quantitative analysis particularly appropriate for geophysical exploration, hydrogeology, mathematical geology, and geotechnical careers.


Year One
EARTH 121/122 and 121L/122L
PHYS 121/122 and 121L/122L
CHEM 120/123 and 120L/123L
CS 102
MATH 127/128, 115 or 125

Year Two
2A

EARTH 231, 235, 260
MATH 227P or CIV E 221
ENGL 210C
One elective (0.5 credit) from Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Computer Science, Engineering or Geography Remote Sensing

2B
EARTH 221, 232, 238
MATH 228 or CIV E 222
One elective (0.5 credits) from Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Computer Science, Engineering or Geography Remote Sensing


Year Three
3A

EARTH 333, 358, 360, 370, 390
One elective (0.5 credit) from Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Computer Science, Engineering or Geography Remote Sensing

3B
EARTH 236, 355, 458
One elective (0.5 credit) from Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Computer Science, Engineering or Geography Remote Sensing
One Arts elective (0.5 credit)
One unrestricted elective (0.5 credit)


Year Four
EARTH 427, 436A/B, 460, 461, 490
Two electives (1.0 credit) from Physics, Mathematics, Computer Science or Engineering
An additional three Earth Sciences courses from 300- or 400-level courses (1.5 credits)

Recommended Electives
PHYS 246, 252, 253, 256, 259, 352, 353, 364, 365
CS 212, 230, 316
CIV E 375, 381, 472, 473, 486
CH E 574
CHEM 212, 219, 254, 264, 311, 312, 313, 354
GEOG 275, 375, 376

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Co-operative Applied Earth Sciences
(Environmental Hydrogeology Option)


Year One
EARTH 121/122 and 121L/122L
CHEM 120/123 and 120L/123L
PHYS 121/122 and 121L/122L
MATH 107/108
CS 102
One elective 2 (0.5 credit)

Year Two
2A

EARTH 231, 235, 260
EARTH 223 1
CIV E 221 or MATH 217

2B
EARTH 221, 232, 238
CIV E 222 or MATH 228
One elective 2 (0.5 credit)


Year Three
3A

EARTH 333, 358, 390
ENGL 210C
CIV E 353
Two electives 2 (1.0 credit)

3B
EARTH 355, 359
CH E 025 3 or CIV E 280, CIV E 486
CHEM 266 or BIOL 240
BIOL 250 or ENV S 200 or ENV S 201


Year Four
EARTH 342, 436A/B, 438, 440, 456, 458, 459, 490
Two electives 2 (1.0 credit)

Notes

  1. New EARTH courses.
  2. Six electives are prescribed of which two must be from MATH/SCI courses, two from Faculty of Arts courses, and two are unrestricted.
  3. Or other approved Fluid Mechanics course (see program advisor).

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Honours Science Program Four
(With Specialization in Earth Sciences)

Admission to, and continuance in, Honours Science Program Four requires an overall cumulative average of 60%, and a cumulative average of 65% in all Earth Sciences courses.

In order to graduate in the Honours Science program, with a specialization in Earth Sciences, the following requirements must be met:

  1. Successful completion of 42 one-term courses as indicated on table below.
  2. Failure of more than one course in the field of specialization will result in the requirement to withdraw from the program.
  3. No more than 3.0 SCI credits may be applied to the program.
  4. Students must have been enrolled full-time in two out of three years, one of which must be either Year Two or Three, and the other must be Year Four. Year Four of the program must be taken at the University of Waterloo.
  5. Mandatory courses as listed below.


Year One
Students entering Year One must take a total of ten term courses, which must include:
EARTH 121/122 and 121L/122L
CHEM 120/123 and 120L/123L
PHYS 111/112 and 111L/112L, or BIOL 111/112 or two 200-level Biology term courses
MATH 107/108
CS 102

Year Two
Students entering Year Two must take a total of ten term courses, which must include:
EARTH 221, 231, 232, 235, 236, 238
ENGL 210C
Two other Science term courses (1.0 credit)

Year Three
Students entering Year Three must take a total of 12 term courses, which must include:
Six or eight term courses from: EARTH 260, 331, 332, 333, 336, 342, 345, 355 or 460, 370
Two other Science term courses (1.0 credit)
Two or one Arts term courses (1.0 credit)

Year Four
Students entering Year Four must take a total of ten term courses, which must include:
EARTH 427, plus three to five term courses from EARTH 300- or 400-level courses

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Minor in Earth Sciences

In order to graduate with a Minor in Earth Sciences, the following requirements must be met:

  1. Successful completion of 5.0 credits in Earth Sciences, with a cumulative average of 65% in all Earth Sciences courses.
  2. The required credits must include:

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