LIST OF FIGURES ......................................................................................... iii

PAPER CONSUMPTION

AT UNIVERSITY OF WATERLOO

ENVIRONMENT AND RESOURCE STUDIES 285

Submitted to:

James Kay

Thursday, April 14, 1994

Submitted by:

Ryan Good

Scott Meyer

Earl Nestman

Rebecca Peters

Bart Zych

PREFACE

This study has been conducted as a WATGREEN project. WATGREEN is a program aimed at creating a sustainable environment on the University of Waterloo campus.

The University of Waterloo has made many significant efforts in cutting down wastes and reducing excess purchasing. These actions reduce the explotation of virgin stock resources in the creation of new products, and decreases the waste entering landfill sites. This project assesses the paper inputs and paper outputs at the University of Waterloo, and proceeds to make recommendations in order to continue the reduction of virgin resource purchases and minimise excess waste. It is hoped that these recommendations will soon be implemented at the University. This study has been conducted from the perspective of concerned students with a vested interest in the deleterious practices of the forest industry and the systems that support them.

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The University of Waterloo may be viewed as a microcosm of society in terms of resource use. Here on campus we consume many products of the earth without fully contemplating the far-reaching effects and implications of our habits. Students, faculty, and staff collectively utilise massive quantities of water, electricity, and paper directly or indirectly each day. This use is linked with the extractive processes that continue to deplete the planet's natural assets at an alarming rate. In light of our societal quest to ensure sustainability for current and future generations, the study group investigated the paper consumption patterns on campus, the systems that support them, and the effects they incur. This increased knowledge and awareness provided a solid foundation from which potential recommendations were made with regards to sustainable paper use. From these recommendations it is hoped that action can be taken to substantially minimise the University's impacts on forest ecosystems.

Although the University of Waterloo recycles waste paper, and purchases partially recycled paper products, the University is inevitably dependent on virgin tree pulp for its daily paper use. During the process of paper recycling the lengths of the pulp fibres become shorter with each consecutive cycle. Therefore, a relative percentage of virgin pulp is usually needed to produce paper of "acceptable" quality. Although experiments have been conducted using cloth rags and similar materials to increase fibre length, forests are still the prefered resource, and continue to be cleared at an alarming rate. This issue must be kept in mind when painting a picture of the campus' impacts on the environment through its consumption of paper.

2.0 SUSTAINABILITY

In the present state of the world, with increased environmental degradation, the term sustainability seems to be weaving its way along the information highway of our future. The Bruntland Commission on Environment and Development gave popular notoriety to this concept of sustainability by stating that it is "development that meets present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". Indeed, this important buzz-word is difficult to understand given the magnitude of its application, and the various ideas it represents to different people. In this respect, a more workable and pragmatic definition is necessary; one which focuses on the particular topic under discussion.

Therefore, a comprehensive definition of sustainability has been forged, one which is relevant to the study of paper consumption at the University. The definition consists of a set of three characteristics which are essential to sustainability in this context.

2.1 Criteria for Sustainability

a. The system must maintain bioregional roots.

This concept of bioregionalism implies the support of production and consumption of resources and materials within local geographic boundaries. Bioregionalism, besides creating a greater sense of community, is more ecologically benign in terms of resource regulations and decreased fossil fuel use for transportation. Furthermore, it is more socially responsible in terms of supporting local economies where employment conditions can be monitored. Specifically defining the geographic boundaries was incorporated into the final objectives of this study (see section 3.0).

b. The system must maximise long-term environmental and economic

feasibility.

All actions taken today must be accounted for today, not tomorrow! Development and practices which do not fully consider all possible ramifications must be changed. By avoiding those actions which could adversely affect our ecological and economic foundations, we can ensure the possibility for sustainability.

c. The natural resources supporting the system must continue to "thrive" being used, reused, and replenished.

This final criterion ties into the previous one. Moreover, it clearly illustrates the idea of a closed-loop system as an integral ingredient for sustainablity. `Closing the loop' ideally implies recycling close to 100% of all wastes generated. It also implies successful regeneration of the resources which are used as initial and/or supplementary inputs into the loop.

To briefly clarify this concept of a closed-loop system take, for example, a hypothetical scenario of paper consumption at UW. In this scenario hemp would be organically grown on University property to supply a campus pulp and paper mill with raw pulp. This would be added to the waste paper to bring it up to acceptable quality for consumption. Furthermore, seeds from past crops would also be used for regenerating future crops. Thus the system would be maintained in such a way that outputs (to the landfill) and inputs (in terms of resource depletion) are minimised.

3.0 STUDY OBJECTIVES

The purpose of this study was divided into three concise objectives which, when completed, would permit an evaluation of the University's paper consumption practices. They would also act as a platform from which recommendations could be made. These objectives are described as follows:

1. It is in the interest of the study to gain a comprehensive understanding of the components and interrelationships involved within the life cycle of paper purchased by the University of Waterloo. The purpose is to provide a detailed definition of the entire life cycle which will be referred to as the "super-system", and a subsequent description of the paper flows on campus which will be referred to as the "campus system". It is also necessary to complete systems diagrams to illustrate the components and functions of these systems.

2. A focused analysis of the super-system and the campus system is to be carried out in order to gain specific insight into their proximity to sustainability. This will be done using the criteria for sustanability outlined in section 2.1.

3. By scrutinising the information gathered observations will be made to determine whether it is advisable to make improvements to the system. As a result, various adjustments and alternatives to the present system will be considered. This will be followed by certain recommendations that would be both beneficial and effective.

In pursuit of satisfying the outlined objectives, a comprehensive array of questions was generated. Each question was directed towards a specific part of the study as outlined in Table 1. The process by which to answer these questions was formulated and is also outlined in Table 1. Investigations were made to find out how much paper the University purchases, who its suppliers are, what services are provided on campus in regards to paper flows, and how much of the materials are recycled. By segregating the tasks into workable portions the data could be easily gathered and compiled into a comprehensive whole. The sources for the information gathered are to be found in the reference section, while a summary of the specific interviews with these sources may be found in Appendix A.

4.0 STUDY CONSTRAINTS AND LIMITATIONS

Although the study was carried out by a methodology (see Table 1) which directly supported the three objectives outlined above, it was found that some restrictions would have to apply. Deciding on which type(s) of paper to focus on became the initial priority. Because of time constraints it would have been inefficient to look at every available paper product, including envelopes, newspapers, posters, tickets, toilet paper etc.. As E.R.S. 285 is only a single term course, it was decided to limit the analysis to only a few of the major paper products purchased and consumed on campus. The four types chosen were 8.5" by 11" white computer paper, photocopy paper, bond paper and fine paper. According to Mike Rowe from Graphics Services and Phyllis Nandakumar from the Purchasing department, these would adequately represent the majority of consumed paper materials that affect forest resources. However, generalizations as to what percentage of the paper stream is made up of 8.5" by 11" paper could not be obtained (refer to question 8 of interview with Mike Rowe, Appendix A).

It is important to note that the paper purchased by the University (or that portion which has been selected for study) which is labeled "recycled", are not truly recycled products. This paper is comprised of more than 90% virgin wood fibres and less than 10% post-consumer material. As a result, it is not allowed to carry the `ecologo' label. which signifies a product as "environmentally friendly"(Nandakumar, 1994). Therefore, these products can not ideally be referred to as a recycled products, or described as a sound ecological choice. Concequently, this type of paper will be called "mixed paper" for the remainder of the report. Furthermore, the computer paper considered in the study contains no post consumer paper pulp and is therefore listed as virgin paper. This classification is supported by the Purchasing department. Whenever a department, such as Environmental Studies, wishes to purchase computer paper of high recycled material content they must inevitably pay a higher price for the product (Reuhlicke, 1994).

It should also be mentioned that the outputs of paper products (i.e. garbage, and recycled material) were not the same materials observed as inputs (i.e. the four mentioned above). Since the kinds of paper omitted from the study, as well as paper brought into the system from exterior sources (i.e. students' and staff's own supplies), make up a substantial portion of products on campus, no direct parallels could be drawn between inputs and outputs. The output figures simply indicate how, and in what quantity, the University discards its paper products at the end of their use. This factor was a limitation in determining the systems proximity to a closed-loop.

Originally the main objective was to analyse Graphics services as a major purchaser and consumer of paper products on campus. However, it was found that this study was not feasible. The information on the amount of paper ordered, and the variety of types available, could not be acquired in total figures. It has only been recorded in a piecemeal fashion by Graphics. In order to avoid complications Graphics was totally removed as the primary focus.

It was decided that it would be beneficial to analyse the information most manageable to obtain, which was the purchasing totals for the campus as a whole. By analysing this information, the magnitude of the University of Waterloo's paper consumption practices were exposed, and the entire campus' proximity to sustainability in terms of paper consumption could be examined.

5.0 THE PAPER SYSTEM

By loose definition a system is a set of relationships and processes which, when put together, form a whole. The focus of this study is on the paper system. This system was approached on two levels. The first is the super system, which includes all of the interrelationships and processes involved in the birth, life and death of a piece of paper which passes through the University of Waterloo, that is, the lifecycle of paper purchased by the UW. The second level was a more detailed study of paper flows on campus, that is, the campus paper system. It was important for the study to focus on both levels of the system in order to understand how actions and purchases involving paper fit into a holistic view of sustainability.

The campus paper system cannot be addressed and analysed in terms of sustainability and its proximity to being a closed-loop system without first addressing the super-system of which it is a part. Furthermore, by understanding the paper system within the University, and by demanding change in this educational institution towards sustainability, it is conceivable that ecological enlightenment may diffuse outward throughout the rest of the paper super-system.

5.1 The Super-System

Once again, the super-system is the entire life cycle of paper purchased by the University of Waterloo, and passing through the campus. The super-system originates at the location where the trees necessary for paper production are grown and harvested. It continues through the pulp and paper manufacturing processes which provide paper suppliers with their products. Paper is then sold by the suppliers to UW and used on campus before being transferred to the landfill site, or recycling plant. The super-system diagram (represented in Figure 1) gives a visual representation of how this system works. The subsequent sections completely outline each component of the super-system.

5.1.1 Resource Extraction

The trees used for the production of paper which make their way to the University of Waterloo are of different species, and from a variety of locations around the world. These are acqquired by two manufacturers who produce the paper purchassed by UW, Domtar Industries and Rolland Incorporated.

Domtar Industries has an extensive role in paper production. It maintains a number of sources of wood for its pulp and paper mill in Cornwall, Ontario which manufacturers and distributes paper to UW suppliers. Necessary for current high quality paper production is a mixture of both hardwood and softwood forest resources. Domtar uses hardwood tree species purchased from private contractors. These hardwood forest stands are located in Lanarck county north-west of Ottawa, and Missina, in New York State south of Cornwall. Domtar also receives supplies from various other locations in New York State, where they own approximately 106 000 acres (Young, 1994). Softwood supplies come from northern Quebec and Ontario, where 25% is derived from Crown Lands (Young, 1994). The wood is manufactured into paper from two main sources: wood chips constituting 40%, and round wood (logs) which comprise 60% of the total paper produced(Young, 1994). Most wood chips come directly from the forests where a `flail chipper' chips the logs at the clear-cut site. Other wood chips are procured from virgin wood sawmill residue known as millbroke. Post consumer paper pulp (derived from office refuse in Montreal and Toronto) is also purchased to manufacture paper. Ontario forest management regulations require replanting of all cut forests and Domtar follows this rule strictly (Young, 1994). Domtar is also in the process of building a cardboard recycling factory, where the pulp manufactured is hoped to replace the softwood pulp element now used in paper production.

Rolland Inc. is a manufacturer and distributor located in Montreal, Quebec. Rolland is not directly involved in the logging and pulping processes, but purchases pulp from a variety of companies in different countries, including Domtar (Delisle, 1994). The pulp is produced in mills from virgin hardwood and softwood tree species, mill broke material, and post consumer paper products. The wood which supplies these mills, is derived from three countries, Canada (53%), United States (37%), and Brazil (10%) (Delisle, 1994).

5.1.2 Pulp and Paper Mills/ Manufacturers/ Distributors

As stated above Rolland and Domtar are the primary paper manufacturers for the UW paper suppliers. Each produces a variety of paper, recycled, mixed, and non-recycled, which are of different weights and colours. As stated previously, the paper which can be described as "recycled" is not purchased by UW; it does not have enough post-consumer pulp content to carry the `ecologo' label. As a result it is called "mixed".

Rolland and Domtar manufacture a variety of paper which directly relates to consumer demand. Supply and demand works on the premise that the manufacturers and suppliers will produce what the customers wish to buy, and at the same time, the customers will buy what is offered at the lowest prices. Therefore, if the manufacturer finds that making mixed paper from more than 90% virgin wood is the most economical, product prices will reflect this, and the customer will buy this type of paper. The manufacturer may make paper with a higher post consumer pulp content but, because the demand has not yet been fully developed, smaller amounts will be produced at higher prices. Thus, there will be little incentive for the customer to purchase this paper, slowing momentum in the pursuit of sustainability. Domtar distributes paper to Buntin Reid and Today's Business. Rolland Supplies to Graphic Papers. (Young and Delisle, 1994)

5.1.3 Suppliers

There are three suppliers who are contracted through the UW purchasing department to supply paper: Buntin Reid, Graphic Papers and Today's Business (see section 5.2.1 for details on systems contracts). The suppliers have catalogues which outline their products, and which are sent to various departments and services at the University so that orders can be made(Nandakumar, 1994). The suppliers have their head offices in Toronto, Ontario.

5.1.4 Campus

This study has a specific focus on the campus paper system, which will be outlined fully in section 5.2. The campus plays a pivital role in the overall functioning of the paper system. The purchases and demands made by the different departments at the University have a direct effect on what is manufactured, and subsequently, how many trees are cut. Furthermore, the ways in which paper is used and then discarded has a direct effect on the paper system. If paper is discarded into the garbage, the paper will have a single-use lifespan and then sent to the landfill increasing waste. However, paper which is recycled may have the opportunity to re-enter the paper system at the pulp and paper mills, increasing the life span of the paper, and decreasing the need for virgin resources.

5.1.5 Recycling

Genor Recycling located in Brantford Ontario, picks up the University's fine paper, post consumer white paper, computer paper, old catalogues and shredded confidential records. Three pickups are made per year, at close to 60 tonnes of paper each. The University separates the paper, Genor picks it up, bails it, and then sells it to various mills in Ontario, Quebec, the United States and Korea. These paper fibres are ultimately reused for paper towel and toilet paper production. (Moffat)

5.2 The Campus System

The University of Waterloo campus paper system is also comprised of many interrelationships. The Purchasing Department has the greatest amount of control determining the paper inputs to the campus system. The paper inputs (paper flowing into the campus system) are from a number of sources including purchases made by the University, and paper brought in by students and staff from elsewhere. However, as stated before, the paper inputs addressed in this study only pertain to 8.5"x 11" white paper purchased through the Purchasing Department at the University.

The paper is purchased by the different departments and ancillary services on the campus directly from one of the three UW suppliers. The purchase order is processed through the Purchasing department and forwarded to the supplier. The suppliers drop the paper off at the different departmental offices, at the Graphics Services receiving docks,or at Central Stores located at East Campus Hall. Central Stores is another ancillary business of the UW which purchases stationary products, envelopes and, computer paper. This service acts as a retail outlet servicing the UW at lower costs. The campus system diagram (represented in Figure 2) visually explains these interrelationships. The components are fully outlined in the sections to follow.

5.2.1 Purchasing Contracts

The Purchasing Department sets up a systems contract with the three suppliers discussed in section 5.1.3. Every three years a contract representing the University's paper product demands is released, and numerous different suppliers are given the opportunity to bid on the contract. The suppliers with the lowest costs and those who meet the needs of the University, are awarded the contract. In theory, the systems contract limits the departments' purchasing choices to the three suppliers, as it is expected that every purchase is to be made through the Purchasing Department. Ideally, the departments on campus are not to purchase supplies from outside suppliers. However, if recycled computer paper is desired but not offered through the contract suppliers, departments must either purchase the virgin paper available, or else make their purchases from outside sources. This, for example, is done by Environmental Studies which uses unbleached recycled paper for laser printing.

5.2.2 Departmental Roles

Every department is responsible for making it's own choices on product purchasing. Departments are defined as any educational program (E.R.S, Geography, Planning are all departments), any faculty, administrative department, or any ancillary service on campus. The departments receive catalogues from the suppliers. Two order forms are then made up for each department; one copy is sent to the supplier and the other is sent to the Purchasing Department to keep a record of purchases. Each department has their own account number, where purchase and finance records are stored. Accordingly, financial exchanges occur through computers linked to the finance department (Nandakumar, 1994).

5.2.3 Graphics Services

Graphic Services is an ancillary business at UW. In 1993, 4.3 million dollars worth of printing was done at Graphic Services, which includes all course notes, catalogues, letterheads, and envelopes. Any additional printing or photocopying needs are further satisfied by Graphic Services. Graphics also services the 35 coin operated photocopy machines around the campus, and runs the various copy Centres at UW. Graphic Services itself operates on the supply and demand system. (Rowe, 1994)

5.2.4 Recycling and Waste

Paper recycling containers are found scattered throughout the campus. These collect the discarded paper products before being shipped to Genor, where they begin to be recycled. Unfortunately, large quantities of paper still ends up in the waste stream after its use. Exact amounts of paper recycled, and paper discarded into garbage containers, will be discussed in section 6.2.

6.0 THE FLOWS

The information collected about the paper inputs, and the paper outputs (paper flowing out of the campus system) are approximate figures (i.e. not to the exact sheet of paper). The figures for the flows of paper entering the campus system were collected through Purchasing. The data itself was derived from the 1993 Annual Usage Reports, which are attained from computer files at Data Processing (another UW service). These are available on request. The figures for the output flows of paper leaving the campus system were attained from Patti Cook, Waste Management Co-ordinator for UW.

6.1 Paper Inputs

It is important to get a specific idea of the massive quantity of paper products the University goes through in order to paint a picture of the paper system itself, which, in turn, will help identify the campus' effects on forest resources. This is obvious. However, considering the timeline, all the University's consumption habits could not be accounted for. As previously stated, the scope was to focus on the main sources of plain 8.5" by 11" paper (i.e. computer paper, photocopier paper, fine paper, and bond paper). Thus, the totals for these paper products, ordered through the Purchasing contract in the year of 1993, were acquired from the Purchasing Department usage reports. These numbers account for purchases made by the campus as a whole. The only exception is the total under the heading "Fine Paper" which pertains only to paper ordered by Graphics Services. This is because fine paper is that material which only Graphics uses for printing. In total it was discovered that, of the four types of paper considered in the study, 67.252 million sheets entered the campus system. The breakdown of this total is listed as follows.

Computer Paper * White 3 million sheets

* Green Line 5 million sheets

* Stock Tab 2.5 million sheets

These products are supplied by Today's, as contracted through

Purchasing. They are from virgin resources.

Photocopy Paper * Virgin 8,449,000 sheets

* Mixed 42,630,500 sheets

These products are supplied by Graphic Papers as contacted through Purchasing.

Bond Paper (pkgs. of 500 sheets)

* Virgin 2245 pkgs. = 1,122,500 sheets

* Mixed 100 pkgs. = 50,000 sheets

These products are used mainly for photocopiers, laser printers and typewriters. They are supplied by Buntin Reid as contracted through purchasing.

Fine Paper * Virgin 1 million sheets

* Mixed 3.5 million sheets

These products are ordered specifically by Graphics Services and supplied by Buntin Reid. They are used as printing paper for course notes which are distributed to departments on campus.

Input Graphs

The amounts of different types of paper entering the campus system is visually described in Figure 3. There are four types of paper: computer, photocopy, bond and fine paper. Each of these types is represented as quantities of both 100% virgin wood paper and "mixed" paper. Of the 67.252 million sheets entering the campus system, 46.2 million sheets are under the category of mixed paper and the remaining 21.1 million sheets of paper are made of 100% virgin wood pulp.

Figure 4 describes the breakdown of virgin and mixed paper within each type of paper. This graph demonstrates that of certain types of paper, such as computer paper and bond paper, a high percentage is of no recycled content at all.

6.2 Paper Outputs

There are two major paper product outputs flowing from the University of Waterloo. The first is paper that ends up in the waste (garbage) stream and is delivered to the Erb Street Landfill in Waterloo. The rest of the paper which leaves the campus is first picked up and stored by Plant Operations at UW before being taken to Genor Recycling in Brantford.

Of the entire waste stream entering the landfill 45% is composed of paper products. The paper which could be recycled of this amount is 19% (see Figure 5). The total amount of paper that is recycled by Genor was unobtainable as a percentage, but the total paper taken to be recycled was recorded at 180 tonnes.

Output Graph

The amount of paper products entering the landfill, in relation to the total of all wastes entering the landfill, is described in Figure 5. Of all the wastes entering the landfill 45% are paper products. It seems that there is no recycling market for 26% of these "waste" paper products, but for the 19% which could be recycled no answer is available to why it is not. This paper is wasted unnecessarily.

7.0 ANALYSIS OF THE PAPER SYSTEM AND DATA

The study group has outlined Objective 2 as determining the proximity of campus paper consumption practices to sustainability. The system definition and the quantitative data collected are essential to understanding what kind of impacts the University of Waterloo may have on the future of forest resources. In order to evaluate the information, certain criteria for sustainability was generated. Presently, this criteria will be used to assess the collected material.

7.1 Bioregional Roots

The term bioregionalism is rather ambiguous. In fact, a text book definition is highly dependent on the particular text book referenced. For instance, one definition of a bioregion may be the watershed, while another may be the climatic region. On the other hand, one may be determined by political boundaries. Still, some may be of the opinion that the bioregion is confined to a personal plot of land.

In any case, this concept of bioregionalism implies the support of consumption and production within local geographical boundaries. The underlying ideals with respect to bioregionalism, whatever the preferred definition is, have important implications which are critical for the study's purpose in describing sustainability on Campus.

Emphatically, bioregionalism and sustainability are completely interconnected. This is because, essentially, a sustainable system cannot exist without incorporating bioregional ideals (Royal Commission on the Future of Toronto Waterfront, p.39, 1992.

The distance a given product travels from where it is produced to where it is consumed is of prime concern. On that account, the farther the distance, the more fossil fuels required for transport. This is, of course, in direct contradiction with sustainability in terms of increased fossil fuel emissions entering the already satiated atmosphere. Furthermore, distant transport encourages the consumption of non-renewable resources which is profanity to the proponent of sustainability.

Accordingly, the position which has been taken with regard to bioregional paper production and consumption is: "The closer, the better!" In this respect, products should be produced and bought as locally as possible. From the perspective of paper consumption at the University of Waterloo, this would ideally imply paper production right on campus. In this scenario, 'transport costs' would be negligible. Naturally, the idea of paper production on campus is idyllic, but nevertheless it should not be discounted as a future goal or alternative.

A more pragmatic approach was taken in describing the campus' bioregion which reflects the study's interest in forest resources. With this in mind, the boundaries set for the University of Waterloo's bioregion are outlined by the forest region which the campus is a part of.

The University of Waterloo falls within Lobe 1 of the Great Lakes-St Lawrence Forest Region (Rowe, 11). Lobe 1, or Huron-Ontario, includes most of the northern portion of the Southern Ontario Peninsula. The northern limit is marked by the Bruce Peninsula and Manitoulin Island at the extreme west, and approximately extends from Gravenhurst to Prescott (see map 2).

In spite of the fact that this section is well settled, and extensive forest tracts no longer exist (Rowe, 92), deciduous trees such as beech and sugar maple are quite commonplace. These stands are frequently intermixed with softwood-types including eastern hemlock and eastern white pine. This deciduous/coniferous mosaic meets the requirements for the softwood and hardwood components necessary for current paper production (as mentioned in section 5.1.1).

These boundaries were chosen for a number of reasons. First and foremost, it is a very valid bioregion in standard ecological terms (Aberley, 77). By defining a forest zone as a bioregion, many other characteristics arise which can give this area its uniqueness. These include such things as: animal and other plant species, agriculture, soil type, and regional climate (Snyder, 17). Second, as stated above, this region is capable of producing the type of pulp needed for the university's purposes. The forest bioregion is also large enough to conceivably produce the necessary quantity of pulp to supply the campus's paper needs. Lastly, since the focus of the study is not mapping the bioregion, it was defined with a limited level of depth. Indeed, one could spend a complete study on mapping a bioregion (Aberley, 71). Hence, the standardised and simplistic nature of the set boundaries.

Under the adopted conditions of bioregionalism, the super-system under consideration does not lie within the defined bioregion. In many instances the paper production/consumption network for UW geographically supersedes the boundaries. A prime example of this are the resources being acquired from Brazil. This is clearly illustrated on Map 1. Therefore, the paper system does not maintain bioregional roots.

7.2 Maximising Long-Term Feasibility

In efforts to ensure a sustainable society, all actions must be environmentally and economically feasible for present and future generations (see section 2.0). Practices which do not fully consider long-term environmental and economic integrity are on a slow progression to ruin.

In fact, the paper production process that the University supports through its purchases is not environmentally or economically feasible in the long-run. This can be clearly illustrated by first discussing the effects of paper production/consumption on forest resources.

7.2.1 Effects on Forest Resources

The effects of paper production and consumption on the natural forest systems are many fold. However, to go into the intricacies of this rather parasitic relationship, and how it affects entire ecosystems, is beyond the scope of this paper. More important is the state of natural forest systems as a resource for current and future paper production.

Most of the trees used to produce the paper ordered by the University of Waterloo are from Canada (see section 5.1.1). To determine whether the University is acting in a sustainable manner, or in the best interest of the bioregion, it is important to investigate the current situation in Ontario forest management. This will be used as representative of forestry practices throughout Canada.

Approximately 95% of Ontario's 377,000 square kilometres of productive forests are committed to logging (Theberge. p.125, 1989). Furthermore, at least 85% of these resources are destined to be clear cut (Priddle. p.195, 1991), a practice which has extremely destructive impacts on entire forest ecosystems. At current rates of cutting and regeneration, it is predicted that Ontario could run out of productive forests in less than fifty years (ibid. p.190, 1991). It is apparent that current forestry practices in Ontario are not sustainable. Furthermore, these same trends are echoed throughout the Canadian forestry industry. It is important that the University considers how its purchasing and consumption habits support this kind of reckless deforestation. If forest resources are to survive to be used by future generations, either the forest industry must change its practices voluntarily, or institutions like UW must force change through its purchasing power. By demanding paper produced by ecologically sustainable forestry practices, our resources can continue to thrive. Currently, long-term feasibility for using forest resources for paper production does not exist.

Attempts at regeneration in Ontario have been largely unsuccessful (Priddle, p.151, 1991). This is due to soil erosion occurring in clear-cuts caused by wet periods, and parching of the remaining soil in dry periods (ibid. p. 194). Furthermore, "Since 1977 one third of the trees planted on the land cut are doing well; another one third would regenerate if it received a lot of attention, which it is not; and the final one third has been so badly disturbed that it will never regenerate the forest cover that was there before harvesting" (ibid. p.195). According to these statements it is obvious that at least part of the areas currently used as forest resources for paper purchased by the University of Waterloo are not regenerating. As a result, it is probable that in the future the resources needed to support the University's paper consumption will be acquired from forest stands even further away than those used now.

In order to ensure that a bioregional approach is possible, it is important to recognise the effects of forestry practices on the bioregion as described in the study (see section 7.1). As it stands, Ontario's ancient forest cathedrals of the Great Lakes - St. Lawrence forest region (the University's bioregion) are almost gone (Hackman. p.171, 1989). Clearly, it is essential to have adequate regeneration of these resources if there is to be any possibility of harvesting in the future. Since bioregionalism is a pertinent component for sustainability at the University of Waterloo, then it is important to ensure that the resources the University depends on are available in the bioregion, now and in the future.

Economically, there are much better uses for Ontario's forest resources than commitment to paper production. "It has been shown through cost-benefit analysis using very conservative measures of recreational benefits that there is a real financial advantage to manage marginal forested lands as parks or recreational reserves, rather than for timber harvest" (ibid. p.197). As the forests continue to disappear, the possibility for using them to their full recreational and economic potential also dwindles. In terms of long-term economic feasibility, the forests are not being utilised wisely. If the forests must be utilised as a means for economic ends,then it would seem appropriate to use them for joint purposes as both recreational and harvestable resources. By supporting alternatives to tree pulp for paper manufacturing (see section 8.0), the University of Waterloo can increase the chances for using forests in these more efficient and sustainable manners.

Below is a calculation of the number of trees consumed annually to produce the paper ordered by the University of Waterloo:

Variables

1 tonne of paper produces approximately 250,000 sheets of paper

2 tonnes of wood are used to manufacture approximately 1 tonne of paper

40-100 trees are needed to produce 1 tonne of wood

Source: Wayne Younge, Domtar Industries. Woodland Department.

Calculation

The University of Waterloo purchases 67,252,000 sheets of paper annually (see section 6.1). This total was used to calculate the average number of trees indirectly consumed by the University through its purchasing of 8.5" by 11" computer, photocopy, bond, and fine paper products. The beakdown of total sheets ordered is listed below:

Virgin sheets = 21,071,500 (calculated from totals in section 6.1)

Mixed sheets = 46,180,500 (calculated from totals in section 6.1)

However, only the proportion of virgin resources in the total paper purchased was considered. Therefore, the proportion of virgin material in the mixed paper was converted into a number of sheets. Since less than 10% of the content of mixed paper purchased is composed of post consumer resources, the calculations considered that an average of 91% comes from virgin resources. This is generous when taking into account the probability of mixed paper containing anywhere between 1% and 9% post consumer products.

Mixed sheets = 46,180,500 * 91% = 42,024,255 virgin sheets

This total was then added to the virgin sheets directly purchased by UW to give a representation of total virgin sheets ordered in 1993. This number was subsequently used to calculate the number of trees consumed using the variables listed above.

21,071500 virgin sheets + 42,024,255 (virgin sheets calculated from mixed) = 63,095,755 sheets

63,095,755 sheets of paper / 250,000 sheets = 252.4 tonnes of paper

252.4 tonnes of paper * 2 = 504.8 tonnes of wood

504.8 tonnes of wood * 40 = 20,192 trees (low end estimation)

or

504.8 tonnes of wood * 100 = 50,480 trees (high end estimate)

Therefore, the University of Waterloo indirectly uses at least between 20,192 trees and 50,480 trees each year (using 1993 averages).

However, different trees are harvested at different ages. Black Spruce is harvested at 125 years of age, Jack Pine is harvested at 65 years of age, Aspen is harvested at 60 years of age and White Birch is harvested at 60 years of age. These ages are called the rotation ages. The following numbers represent the number of each of these trees in an acre at the age of harvest: Black Spruce (BS) contains 958 trees per acre at 125 years of age, Jack Pine (JP) contains 477 trees per acre at65 years of age, Aspen (A) contains 412 trees per acre at 60 years of age and White Birch (WB) contains 583 trees per acre at 60 years of age..

The University of Waterloo orders paper produced from all of these trees. Because the proportionate composition of trees in paper products is unknown, the number of harvestable trees on one acre of land was calculated as an average of all species.

958 (BS) + 477 (JP) + 412 (A) + 583 (WB) = 2430

2430 (total of numbers of trees per acre) / 4 (species) = 607.5 (608)

Therefore, the average number of trees in an acre of forest clearcut to produce paper for the University of Waterloo is 608.

The University of Waterloo uses between 20,192 and 50,480 trees in the paper it orders annually.

Therefore, 20,192 / 608 (avrg. trees per acre) = 33.2105 or 33 acres

or 50,480 / 608 (avrg. trees per acre) = 83.0263 or 83 acres

The University of Waterloo requires the clearcutting of 33 to 83 acres of land annually to support the paper it orders.

Sources: Chuck Mason of the Ministry of Natural Resources provided data from Plonski's 1960 tables.

These calculations indicate the dramatic effects the University of Waterloo has on forest resources. Considering the study has not focused on a variety of other paper products utilised on campus, it is possible that the University is responsible for consuming even more than 50,480 trees in a year. These totals are astounding. It is important for the University to have a clear picture of its impacts in order to make decisions about its commitment towards sustainability. It is hoped that these figures help to paint that picture.

7.3 Proximity to a Closed Loop System

The characteristics of a closed-loop system as stated in the objectives have been used to measure the proximity of the UW paper system to a closed-loop system. The question remains: Is the campus' paper system linear in direction or cyclical, and to what extent?

The forest resources are being extracted and, while under law clear-cut blocks in Ontario and Quebec must be replanted, there is no assurance of re-plantation of the forests extracted from other countries. In any case, according to a forest expert, only one third of replanted trees survive and flourish in any usable fashion (George Priddle, 1994, E.R.S 218). This leads to the conclusion that regeneration is not successful enough to be considered sustainable.

The recycling efforts made at the University of Waterloo are commendable and continually increasing (Patti Cook, 1994). However, 45% of the waste stream is still composed of paper products, which inevitably end up in a landfill. This linear route is not compatible with efforts towards sustainability.

Recycled paper leaving the University of Waterloo is shipped to a variety of locations to be reused in the production of toilet paper, paper towels, or boxboard. However, there is no assurance that paper recycled from products previously used at the University will come back to Waterloo in this form. Furthermore, toilet paper and paper towels are only single use products. This means that recyclable paper leaving the University can only have a maximum two-use life span. In order to classify this process as closed-loop the paper must have a much longer life span, and continue to circulate through the system until the fibres are so small that they are usable only as compost material.

In essence, the current paper flow is linear. Input of resources is essential, but, as current forest resources are not successfully regenerated, a viable alternative must substitute the input of trees. When analysed as a whole, the major flaws in the paper flow system are the massive input of trees and the output of paper products into the landfill. Although progress is being made in increasing the life span of paper products, and in the recycling of materials, the current paper system remains far from being considered truly closed-loop.

8.0 ALTERNATIVES AND ADJUSTMENT

As the study has clearly alluded to, alternatives and adjustments to the current paper production/consumption system is essential if the University of Waterloo is to embrace the concept of sustainability. Therefore, a brief compilation of ideas for enhancing the system has been composed, which reflect innovative possibilities for introducing more sustainable practices on campus.

8.1 Hemp

Since the early 1930's, approximately half of the forests in the world have been cut down for paper production (Herer. 1992). One of the best alternatives to virgin wood pulp in paper making is hemp. According to the United States Food and Drug Administration, 10,000 acres of four month old hemp plants will yield as much paper as 40,000 acres of twenty year old trees (ibid, 1992). This means that less time and space is required to obtain an equivalent amount of paper from hemp as from forest resources. In light of current paper manufacturing practices, and their effects on natural forest resources, the hemp plant would allow for increased preservation of forest land. A four month growing period in combination with the fact that hemp is extremely resilient, indicates that it is more sustainable than timber with respect to resource viability.

Hemp is naturally resistant to insects and weeds, making herbicides and pesticides unnecessary (Herer. p.175, 1992). This is essential to sustainability because it decreases the amount of inputs for biomass production which are considered foreign to a closed-loop system (Chiras, p.417, 1991). Due to overwhelming environmental deterioration caused by deforestation and the excessive land use required for paper making from trees, hemp as a paper production source makes more sense ecologically.

Cultivation of hemp would also enhance the economic productivity of the areas used for cultivation. Products could be produced from the plants at least once a year with guaranteed yearly returns. The devastated job markets in timber regions stand to make a dramatic comeback once hemp is reintroduced to the domestic paper industry (Herer. p.46, 1992). Degraded land could be utilised again for capital or hemp could be planted to help to rehabilitate disturbed areas. Additionally, less land would be required to produce the same amount of paper resulting in more land being available for other purposes.

Hemp grows in more soils and climates than any other commercial crop (Herer, p.175, 1992). Forests also grow in most regions of the world but the time neccessary for substantial return and the environmental damage resulting form current forestry practices give hemp an advantage. In most regions of the world hemp can be harvested twice a year, more often in warmer areas (ibid, p.175, 1992).

With its short growing season, there is no reason why hemp could not be grown at the University of Waterloo from April until October. The University of Waterloo owns hundreds of acres of fallow grass land to the north of the campus. Furthermore, the technologies for using hemp fibres to make paper have existed since the 1930's, and are relatively inexpensive (Herer, 1992). It would be feasible to grow hemp on these fields. and would be a very productive use of these areas.

However, some problems may be encountered in establishing hemp for paper production on campus. The biggest problem is the fact that hemp cultivation is illegal. On March 21 1994, the Federal government of Canada passed the second reading of Bill C-7 which will legalise hemp for industrial processes (with a permit). Having gone through a more extensive permit allowance system, some Canadians are already growing hemp.

Attitudes and perceptions might also result in a rejection of hemp for paper. Many people might feel that hemp is a dangerous crop due to its narcotic property THC, and may oppose its production for paper. Despite the fact that the hemp used for paper will contain only 0.2% tetra-hydro-cannabinol (THC) (High Times Magazine. 1991), many people may immediately associate hemp production with recreational drug use and will inevitably pick the plants. This may impede hemp production. The only other foreseeable problem is acquiring the equipment needed for hemp to paper conversion. This should prove economically and technically feasible with increased research and development. Emphatically, decisions regarding using hemp in paper prduction must consider the future. Systems converted to sustainability today will undoubtedly pay off tomorrow.

8.2 Kenaf

The kenaf plant requires few fertilisers, pesticides or herbicides. It may grow up to 12 feet in 4 to 5 months, unlike trees, which require decades to be economically useful (in terms of harvesting), and yields 3 to 5 times more fibre per acre per year than southern pine (K. P. Products, 1993).

Kenaf has very little lignin compared to trees, so fewer chemicals, such as acid, are needed in the pulping process to convert it into paper. It also needs less bleaching since Kenaf fibres are whiter than wood fibres. This means that, as opposed to wood based products, the paper produced from Kenaf will have fewer detrimental effluents discharged into the surrounding ecosystem. Also, about 90% of the kenaf plant's weight is retained after pulping, while trees return only about 50%. Judging by per unit weight, it is possible to produce more paper from kenaf pulp than could be derived from wood pulp (ibid. 1993).

The kenaf plant may be grown in a variety of climates. In frost free regions the plant is harvested while green, while in cooler regions it is killed by frost and collected. This means that, in the climatic region of which U. of W. is a part, the Kenaf plant may be successfully grown and harvested for its fibres. Furthermore, the refined kenaf bast (bark) fibres are 2.6 mm long and comparable to the best softwood fibres in strength and burst tests. Core fibres (those from within the plant) measure 0.6 mm and are comparable to hardwood fibres (K.P. Products, 1993). Therefore, the fibre content of Kenaf could easily replace those of trees entirely, and paper production could continue with relatively negligible effects on forest resources.

It is apparent that kenaf has many advantages over wood in terms of contemporary paper production. Economically, and environmentally it makes more sense. It seems that the only drawback must be technical feasibility. However, the technology to convert kenaf into pulp does exist, and because only a few modifications to pulp and paper mills are needed to accommodate kenaf, the cost is fairly minimal. The kenaf plant is a viable alternative as a resource for paper production.

There are several other possible alternatives to using wood for pulp which exist and could possibly be implemented. Experiments with cloth rags, virgin cotton, and cereal straw are currently being done. Research and development into these and others must be sincerely enacted in efforts to reduce the strain on our deteriorating forest resources.

8.3 Photocopying

Unfortunately, many problems occur with double-sided photocopying (photocopying on both sides of the page). In order for double-sided photocopying to be worthwhile practically, it must be done manually (i.e. the paper in the paper feed must be manipulated by a person). This service is currently practised in copy centres across campus if formally requested. Automatic copy machines are those with a closed paper feed and which are operated by copy cards or coins. Some of these can produce double sided copies but are not practical because the paper often jams in the mechanism that flips the paper over in order to copy the other side.

Graphics Services attempts to use recycled paper in photocopiers whenever possible, but must rely on virgin paper products whenever mechanical difficulties warrant it. This is necessary as recycled paper has various qualities which often make it unacceptable to machines (i.e. heavy dust build up).

Recycled paper is not suitable for double-sided copying in automatic feed machines due to its short fibre content (recycling reduces fibre length progressively), which causes the paper to be flimsy and to tear easily in the machines. For this reason, as well as the presence of perforations found around the paper's edges, recycled computer paper must be excluded from use in any photocopying machines. In essence, for a sheet of paper to be usable in a copying machine, it must be free of creases, perforations and tears. This problem may be resolved by producing better quality recycled paper (with longer fibres) or by improving the mechanics of the copying machines. Unfortunately, this alternative is not currently feasible for full implementation at UW.

8.4 Immediate Improvements

Additionally, some obvious, immediate, and practical contributions to the reduction of forest resources in paper production can be applied on campus. Most important is the reuse of printer and photocopy paper which already has printing on one side. This could easily be used as note paper by students, faculty, as well as staff, and substantially cut back on the notebooks and pencil pads purchased both on and off campus.

9.0 RECOMMENDATIONS

It has been made apparent that the University of Waterloo's paper consumption habits are not sustainable. It is thus advised that UW give strict attention to the ideals of bioregionalism, long-term environmental feasibility, and of being involved in a closed-loop system. The most important suggestions are that the University, as a whole, reduces the amount of paper it consumes, realizes the need to use "truely" recycled products, and demand change in the current forestry practice which support the paper industry. A variety of guidelines for approaching sustainable paper consumption practices on campus are outlined below.

1. Reuse one-sided paper for notepads and notebooks.

It is very possible to use paper which has only been printed on one side for better purposes than supplying Genor recycling with supplies. It is feasible to collect this paper and manufacture notebooks for use by students, staff and faculty. The pages could be three-hole punched to make them compatible with binders, or could be bound in certain quantities and then made available. The notebooks could possibly be sold in the bookstore for minimal costs (much less than pre-fabricated notebooks). Another idea is to stage a "Notebook Give-away Day" in the campus centre once a term to supply anyone wishing to use recycled alternatives. The duties of collecting and preparing the reusable sheets could possibly be carried out by a formally organized work group or, students doing their 390s. In any case the prospects of making better use of one sided sheets is valuable in terms of increasing awareness of wasteful paper consumption habits. It is an excellent place to start in reducing the dependency on forest resources.

2. Continue feasibility studies for hemp and kenaf.

The University of Waterloo is advised to carry out studies to determine the whether hemp of kenaf could be productively grown on campus to create fibres necessary for paper pulp. This study could be readily undertaken by E.R.S students working on their 390s or 490s theses'. With the passing of bill C 7, the prospects for legally growing hemp are real. By supporting these alternatives in a local context, support can be shown for alternatives to contemporary paper consumption practices as a whole.

3. Initiate feasibility studies for maintaining bioregional roots.

The University is also advised to analyse the capabilities for paper manufacturers to utilise paper pulp derived from fibres harvested within our bioregion. This will likely include more research into defining an appropriate bioregion. This process could also enlighten other industries as to the possibilities for utilising resources within local geographic boundaries. The agriculture industry is one example. Again, our main recommendation is "the closer, the better"!

4. Increase awareness of current unsustainable forestry practices.

It is essential to provide education to UW students, faculty, and staff on the travesties occurring in the present-day harvest of forests. This includes the impossibility for sustainability using current practices. This works on the premise that if people understand what is happening to forest resources, they will contemplate how their paper consumption habits affect natural ecosystems. This will hopefully convince people to reduce their paper use, and generate pressure to alter the systems which support destructive forestry practices.

5. Make wise use of purchasing power.

The paper which is most commonly considered recycled (that which bears the ecologo label), is made from at least 50% virgin pulp, at least 40% mill broke, and no less than 10% post consumer waste (Young, 1994). However, as stated previously, the paper purchased by UW is not composed of even the minimum post-consumer content needed to be called "recycled". The mixed paper UW receives from the suppliers is not an ecological choice. It is advised that the University use its purchasing power to make ecosensitive paper production economically viable. This means supporting those products which are manufactured with the least amount of negative impacts on natural systems. Because the paper market works on supply and demand, the University must demand paper with at least enough recycled material to carry the ecologo label. This is a very primary step. Furthermore, the university should discontinue purchasing any paper which is not recyclable. These actions can have substantial impacts on both the variety and cost of ecosensitive paper available.

6. Reassess systems contract procedures.

The purchasing department should acquire specific feedback on the campus' demands in terms of truly recycled paper products and apply it to their decisions in choosing suppliers. More importantly, the available suppliers should be able to provide any Department with its specific needs. The Departments would then be guaranteed the ability to purchase any recycled products they desire, and not be subjected to the present limited selection.

7. Make better use of photocopying facilities.

It would be beneficial to reuse one-sided paper in the photocopiers which are now on campus. The paper thrown into recycling bins after one use in the photocopiers could often be reintroduced to the machines. If a student arranged work group was formulated to collect the paper periodically, it could then be added to the "fresh" paper and loaded into the photocopiers. This would help reduce the amount of paper purchased from the suppliers. Furthermore, when photocopiers are to be replaced in the future, it would be advisable to purchase new machines with simple and effective double-sided printing capabilities. In this way, current technologies could help reduce dependency on forest resources.

8. Intriguing, creative, and innovative possibilities.

It would greatly reduce the amount of wasted paper in the computer labs if student papers could simply be submitted through e-mail. This, however, may take some looking into.

Similarly, computerised course calendars are an interesting option to the paper ones now in use. This would have three benefits. First of all, it would reduce the paper purchased each year, thus diminishing affects on forest resources. Second, the process of picking up the calendars would become more efficient and less stressful. Lastly, and most importantly, it would take some real effort for a student to lose this very important document.

Reusing posters for advertising is an easy and effective measure for reducing paper waste.

It would be interesting to initiate a "Lug-a-towel" program to parallel that of the "Lug-a-mug". This would mean that students, faculty, and staff, instead of depending on paper hand towels to dry their hands or faces, would have a small cloth towel that could provide the similar service. This would help create a consciousness on the current wasteful habits in terms of paper consumption.

It is felt that all of the above recommendations, whether easy to implement or not, and whether focused on long-term or short-term application, are totally feasible. It is hoped that they may be seriously considered, and followed through in the future.

10.0 CONCLUSION

The study was illuminating in that a greater understanding of the paper consumption system was achieved. Not only was it revealed how the paper system works on campus, but perhaps more importantly, was the insight gained into the workings of the super-system traced back to the extraction of forest resources for paper production.

By investigating the involved connections running between suppliers, services, faculties, staff and students, and the waste or recycling streams, a greater understanding of the dynamics of the system was inevitable. Indeed, the enormity of the paper production and consumption system of which the University is a part was realized, and was then able to be analysed. As previously concluded, the current system is unsustainable. However it would be short-sighted to underestimate it's size and complexity when attempting to implement changes. Changes will take time. There are many social, political, economic, environmental, and technical variables that must be considered. Accordingly, if we are to decide which changes are appropriate, further study into the intracacies of the sub and super-systems must be carrie out.

In analysing the system, a few points were revealed that were somewhat disconcerting. Despite steps taken in terms of recycling and purchasing, the University is still highly dependent on virgin forest resouces. The estimated quantity of trees UW consumes in a year is startling. Between 20,192 and 50,480 trees cut, or between 33 and 83 acres of forest land cleared, are frightening figures. Also, the information gathered about the geographical areas from which the wood comes was slightly unexpected. It is understandable that the current paper production/consumption system would overstep the defined bioregional boundaries. However, venturing as far outside UW's bioregion as Brazil was not anticipated.

By researching the paper system at UW, increased knowledge was gained into the procedures neccessary for undertaking a large study. Furthermore, useful experience was attained with regard to group dynamics -- problem solving and cooperation are essential components in the pursuit of a comprehensive report.

Nevertheless, no matter how comprehensive the report, this `vision of sustainability' must be shared by the majority of the global population. Political barriers, and general ignorance must be overcome if we are to ensure a sustainable future on this planet. As Einstien so eloquently expressed , "Humankind shall have to aquire a substantially new way of thinking if we are to survive." Indeed, being an instituition of knowledge and learning, UW should be at the forefront of any inovations toward sustainability. In considering the mass quantities of paper purchased each year, and the resultant effects on forest ecosystems, the University should make paper consumption a high priority.

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Phyllis Nandakumar and Mike Rowe for their invaluable assistance in procuring the necessary purchasing data and guiding us towards a thorough understanding of the paper system. Phyllis and Mike have been extremely patient with us, continually answering our questions and finding the necessary figures. We would also like to extend our appreciation to Patti Cook who supplied us with the initial data and guidance to set us on the right path of study. Our gratitude also goes to James Kay and Dave Roewade for their significant input to keep this project focused and pertinent. Furthermore, we would like to thank the many contact people who enthusiastically answered our questions to give us insight into their industry.

Finally, we would like to acknowledge the wise decision of the University of Waterloo in keeping this course a core aspect of the Environment and Resource Studies program. Preliminary thanks also goes to the University administration for seriously considering the outcomes and recommendations from this study, which we believe will continue to enhance the environment at the University of Waterloo.

APPENDIX A: Personal Interview Questions

Questions for Patti Cook

1. Where does the UW paper go to be recycled?

*Paper goes to Genore Recycling in Brantford.

2. Who does the UW purchase paper from?

*Paper is purchased from a myriad of suppliers. The purchasing department on campus has set up a a supplier of regularly purchased paper products.

3. Who purchases paper for the university?

*Every department has the capability of spending their budget. Plus there are buying sources.... besides every department and Graphic Services, there is the bookstore, food services, housing and all other ancillary services.

4. What is the amount of paper waste generated by the university?

*UW recycles approximately 200 tonnes of paper pere year. Recyclable paper still in the waste stream is about 18.52%. Paper products in the waste stream is about 45% of the waste stream. This includes boxboard, misc. paper fibres, paper towels, tissue paper, milk cartons, drinking boxes, feminine hygiene products, etc.

Questions for Rolland Inc.(Alain Delisle)

1. What types of paper do you manufacture?

*We produce high quality uncoated fine papers for commercial printing, business papers, business forms, computer papers, envelopes and specialty papers.

2. What kind of pulp do you use? (ie. virgin, mill broke, post consumer paper)

*We use a veriety of different pulp types:

virgin wood pulp -softwood

-hardwood

mill broke

post-consumer paper paulp

cotton pulp

The type of pulp depends on the type of paper being produced

3. Where do the trees come from which supply the pulp used in your paper processes?

*Brazil, Canada, U.S.A

4. What are the proportions of pulp from each location?

*Brazil: 10%, Canada: 53%, U.S.A.: 37%

5. What types of trees are used?

*As stated above, both hardwood and softwood trees of various species, depending on their origin, are used.

6. Where does the post-consumer paper come from?

*Montreal office refuse

7. What retail suppliers do you sell your products to ?

*Graphic Papers

8. Other comments pertaining to the Paper system

*We are using 300 tonnes of pulp for 340 tonnes of paper.

*We work on a supply and demand. We supply what is demanded from us by the retailers and specific suppliers.

Questions for Domtar Industries (Wayne Young)

1. What types of paper do you manufacture?

*We produce all varieties of fine papers.

2. What kind of pulp do you use? (ie. virgin, mill broke, post-consumer paper)

*all of the above

3. Where do the trees come from which supply the pulp used in your paper processes?

*hardwood species come from private contracters and our own acerage (106,000 acres) in Missina, New York State, just south of Cornwall

*softwood supplies come from Domtar mills in northern Quebec and Ontario

*25% of the wood comes from Crownlands, supplied under the forest management agreements

4. What are the proportions of pulp from each location?

*unable to give you this figure

5. What types of trees are used?

*softwood and hardwood species

6. Where does the post-consumer paper come from?

*Post-comsumer paper comes out of distribution system of office refuse from Montreal and Toronto. We buy paper in bails from this distribution system.

7. What retail suppliers do you sell your products to ?

*We are a large company and have many suppliers.

8. Other comments pertaining to the Paper system

*We are on the leading edge of paper recycling. We are in the process of completing the first-ever cardboard recycling plant which will hopefully create a post-consumer pulp which will entirely replace the softwood pulp component of our paper production.

*2 tonnes of wood= 1 ronne of pulp = 1 tonne of paper

*40-100 trees are required to produce 1 tonne of wood

Questions for Phyllis Nandakumar

1. Would you give us an explanation of how the paper purchasing works on the campus?

-- Purchasing sets up contracts. Individual departments and services order their own products with suppliers under the contract. Purchasing records are sent to the Purchasing Department.

2. Who are the suppliers and how does the systems contract work?

-- Every three years we set up contracts with three suppliers. All purchasing ideally goes through these suppliers.

3. What are the total amounts of paper purchased by all departments at the University of Waterloo?

-- A file with the amounts was received and may be found in the section 6.1.

4. What are product constituents and percentages in paper known as recycled?

-- For any product to receive the "ecologo" label it must contain at least 10% post-consumer resources. At the University of Waterloo, paper purchased and known as "recycled" does not carry this label because it has less than the required recycled material. The word "Recyclled" on the boxes containing the paper is misleading.

Questions for Mike Rowe

1. What services does Graphics Services supply on the campus?

*Graphic Services does all printing and copying required by all departments of the UW. This includes course notes, letterheads, catalogues, posters, specialty printing and any other copying needs.

2. What policies do you have on paper purchases?

*We purchase whatever paper is requested of us, according to the available paper from our suppliers.

3. How much paper is purchased by Graphics Services?

*This is a difficult question to answer. We purchase the amount of paper which is necessary for us to fill our copying orders from the UW. We do not do a grand purchase which lasts for an entire term, but we purchase sporadically according to orders made of us. We also order a huge variety of papers. We do not have any type of records which group the types of paper for an entire year.

4. How many sheets of 8.5"x11" paper are in a tonne?

*1 tonne of paper = 250,000 sheets of 10M bond paper.

5. Why is recycled paper not always the paper purchased?

*As stated above, we purchase whatever type of paper is requested of us from the various professors and departments in the UW.

6. Of all the paper purchased at the UW, what percentage of this falls into the category 8.5" x 11" white paper?

*Because the amount and variety of all papers are so vast, it is beyond conception even how much paper is purchased. It is diffcult for me to comprehend the amount of paper which is purchased in 2 meter sheets relative to 8.5"x11" paper. But, of the 8.5"x11" paper purchased, approximately 95% of it would be white paper.

Questions for Genor Recycling (Mark Moffat)

1. What different types of paper do you receive for recycling from the UW?

*We receive many different paper materials from UW:

-fine papers

-white paper

-computer paper

-colour manifold- off-cut from printers

-old catalogues

-shredded confidential records

2. How much paper do you receive from the University per year?

*180 tonnes per year, 3 pick-ups of 60 tonnes each

3. What are the processes involved in recycling paper, beginning at the UW ending where the paper is reincorporated into the paper production?

*UW separates the paper, Genor picks it up, bails it and sells it to mills

4. What products is the U. of W. recycled paper used in?

*The majority of paper is used in paper towelling and toilet paper.

*Computer printout paper is used in boxboard manufacturing.

5. Where is the recycled paper sent to?

*We sell bails of paper all over this country and throughout the United States. As well, we have a substantial contract with a manufacutrer in Korea.

REFERENCES

Aberley, Doug. Boundaries of Home--Mapping for Local Empowerment. Gabriola Island: New Society Publishers. 1993.

Chiras, Daniel D.. Environmental Science--Action for a Sustainable Future--3rd edition. Redwood City: Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company Inc.. 1991.

Cook, Patti. Waste Management Cooridinator, University of Waterloo. ext. 3245.

Delisle, Alain. Rolland Inc. Manufacturer/ Distributer. Purchasing Department. Montreal, Quebec. (514) 746-0292.

Hackman, Arlin. "Ontario's Park System Comes of Age". Endangered Spaces. Key Porter Books. Canada. 1989. pages 196-210.

High Times Magazine. May 1, 1991. New York:Trans-High Corporation. 1991.

Herer, Jack. The Emperor Wears No Cloths. California: Hemp/Queen of Clubs Publishing. 1992.

Moffat, Peter. Genor Recycling. Brandford, Ontario. (519) 746-5264.

Nandakumar, Phyllis. Purchasing Department, Univerity of Waterloo. ext. 2075.

Priddle, George. "Forest Management in Ontario", p.189-201. Ontario Geographical Perspectives on the Economy and Environment. Toronto: ON. Geographic Institute. 1991.

Rowe, Mike. Graphics Services, University of Waterloo. ext. 2078.

Royal Commision on the Future of the Toronto Waterfront. Regeneration. Toronto: Minister of Supply and Services Canada. 1992.

Ruehlicke, Mary. Instructional Network and Office Manager, Mapping, Analysis, and Design. Environmental Studies, UW, 1994.

Snyder, Gary. "Bioregional Perspectives", The Practice of the Wild. San Franscico: North Point. 1990.

Temagami Wilderness Society. "Scientists Call for Temagami Logging Moratorium". p.1-4. Temagami: Ontario's Last Old Growth Threatened. Canada. Autumn. 1989.

Theberge, John B. Legacy: The Natural History of Ontario. McClelland and Stewart. Canada. 1989.

Young, Wayne. Domtar. Pulp and Paper Mill/ Paper Manufacturer/ Distributer. Woodlands Department, Cornwall, Ontario. (613) 932-6620.