Table of Contents

Appendix
Acknowledgments
Executive Summary
Introduction
Background on the Laurel Creek Watershed
Flow Charts
Site Descriptions
Methods
Analysis of Results
Errors in the Sampling and Problems with our Study Design
Conclusion
Recommendations
Appendix
Bibliography


Acknowledgments

We would like to acknowledge the following people for their contributions to this study, for without their help this study would not have been possible.

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Executive Summary

The purpose of this project is to evaluate the status of Laurel Creek, and to identify where problem points exist. There seems to be a general mythology on campus that the quality of the water in Laurel Creek is poor. This mythology exists with out factual evidence, and we as a group feel this myth has grown through out the years. By using our findings on water quality, we hope to help distinguish fact from fiction.

It is our vision to see the improvement of the creek, not only as a part of our campus but as a part of the City of Waterloo. The creek as natural resource must be improved where necessary and maintained at a satisfactory level. We hope that our study provides the stimulus for further studies necessary for determining the true (water) quality of the creek. By increasing students' involvement in the issues of the creek, these studies may develop into practical learning experiences for students of many disciplines.

Sustainability of natural resources, as in the case of Laurel Creek is imperative to humans well being. A definition of sustainability should include improving degraded systems and causing no further damage to existing systems. Our project will try and ascertain whether the water quality of the creek is degraded on campus, and together with a years of information, (provided by future WATgreen projects) what can be done to improve water quality or to stop further degradation of the water in the creek.

This project falls under the classification of WATgreen was initiated on October 1, 1990 by the president of the University, Dr. Doug Wright. WATgreen was implemented to help create a positive vision of transforming the University to a self sustaining ecosystem, in harmony with the environment. WATgreen's goals are to decrease the overall operating costs of the University and improve the quality of the environment. (WATgreen Home Page, Vision, 1)

Sampling of the Creek occurred over a 10 day period from June 12 - June 21, 1995. This sampling and further testing was conducted by the ERS 280 applied field studies class. Although this type of testing simply provides a snapshot of the creek's condition, other factors will later be identified indicating the creek's health. This paper is the first of hopefully a series of papers that record, analyze, and discriminate against the data in order to draw conclusions about it.

The following paper is comprised of a full term of work by a group of dedicated students wishing to identify problem areas within the Creek. The Creek should be an item of focus. Even if only a small portion of it runs directly through campus we as an educational institution should set and example and work on its improvement. Through this, the University of Waterloo will serve to gain an increase in students knowledge through practical work experience and benefit both the watershed and the community at large. Back to where you were


Introduction

The University of Waterloo is unique in many environmental aspects, the most prominent being Laurel Creek. The creek provides a habitat for many organisms; most noticeable being the water fowl (Ducks and Canadian Geese). Laurel Creek has become an object of interest for many students and concerned citizens. As a group of concerned students we feel that it is necessary to find out whether the water quality of Laurel Creek is in jeopardy. As mentioned, the creek provides habitat to many organisms and it is an important part of a larger ecosystem. Therefore the quality of the water present is crucial for maintaining sustainability on campus.

According to our definition of sustainability, preservation of natural resources is important. Therefore the preservation of Laurel Creek as a natural resource is important. Also, with regards to our definition of sustainability, the improvement of Laurel Creek as a possible degraded system is equally important. Since the creek is part of a larger watershed(300K) the quality of the water at every point is important. Also, the quality of water acts as a reflection of what is going on around the water system, after all the creek can not pollute itself. Since a portion of the creek runs through the University of Waterloo we feel that we should be a positive role model for others to follow. With all the resources and the equipment available at the University there is no excuse for further degradation to occur. If the University was causing further deterioration of the creek to occur, we would be setting a bad example of an educational institution. If we can not keep our portion of Laurel Creek clean then we can not expect others to keep their portions of the creek clean, and therefore we must present a positive image to the public.

The size of the Laurel Creek Watershed is approximately 74 km2. The headwaters are located at Wilmont Line with the creek draining into the Grand River. Laurel Creeks most prominent use is as a home for many aquatic organisms.

The following tests were done to test water quality:

For further explanation of what testing methods were used, see methodology.

We felt that all too often people only concentrate on anthropogenic uses of ecological systems, as opposed to thinking about the well being of the species that depend on the water system for life.

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Background

"Young Abraham Erb was given a lot of advice in 1805 when he arrived from Pennsylvania to take title to the land on which he would build his future. From his holdings of 4,000 acres, he chose Lots 14 and 15 for himself. Acquaintances shook their heads. The land was low, marshy and filled with cedar trees. Many suggested he look for better drained, more suitable land for his home.

Fortunately for Waterloo, Abraham saw far into the future. He saw a fast moving creek that would power a sawmill, and plenty of lumber to build homes, businesses and corduroy roads. Abraham Erb used the flow of Beaver Creek, later known as Laurel Creek, to drive a saw mill. He soon added a dam and a mill pond. When the pond was created, it was much larger than it is today. The head of water stored in the pond was used to power a wheel, which in turn drove the machinery in his mill. As other settlers moved into the area, he recognized the need, and a business opportunity, for a flour mill. New roads to the mill brought customers and settlers. The mill pond would eventually be known as Silver Lake, and Erb's grist mill, built in 1816, would become the focus and heart of a thriving community known as Waterloo.

When Abraham Erb died in 1830, he had seen many changes in his community. His original parcel of land had been divided and Jacob C. Snider now owned the 240 acres which included the Erb mills. The millpond was now known as Snider's Pond. Below the dam, most of the area south of Erb Street was an extensive cedar swamp. After an 1855 survey, this land was drained and filled with soil from nearby hills.

Waterloo grew steadily from 300 inhabitants in 1852, to 1,400 resident in 1885. In 1855, a four-room schoolhouse was built on Church street. A village charter was granted in 1857, and, in 1876, Waterloo celebrated its official status as a town.

As forests were cleared and replaced with fields in the rural areas, and buildings and pavement in Waterloo, the flow in Laurel Creek changed. Heavy rains were no longer absorbed by vegetation in the creek valley. Rains streamed from cleared lands, through storm drains into the creek, in sudden rushes that scoured the stream banks, tumbling soil and even trees into the flow." (Silver Lake Past and Present, September 1994). To see the hydrological cycle, click here.

As population increased so did the need for transportation routes, namely Westmount Road and University. The ideal placement for these roads was right in the coarse of the creek. To get around this the city officials straightened the creek so that it was no longer in the way of road construction. In order to build the University it was also necessary to straighten the creek as it meandered throughout the land that is now South Campus hall. In addition the creek was directed underground, through downtown Waterloo, reemerging after crossing Weber Street in Waterloo.

"Before settlement of this area, surrounding forests would slowly release water into the creek to maintain a year round, steady, cool flow. With tree clearing came summers of low flows and unhealthy, smelly conditions. The water entering Laurel Creek now is warmed after its voyage over much pavement and open areas. It often contains soil and contaminants from fields, lawns, roads and factory drains.

The exposed, shallow bodies the reservoirs within the watershed act like solar heaters, adding even more warmth to the water. Warm water holds less oxygen than cool water, and few fish and insects can survive in such oxygen-poor conditions. To add insult to injury, visiting waterfowl leave behind extra nutrients in the water in the form of duck feces."(Silver Lake Past and Present, September 1994)

Today Laurel Creek after years of abuse is beginning to repair itself, but it cannot do this alone. Enforceable legislation needs to be introduced and enforced in order to help the Laurel Creek watershed become a natural (as natural as can be considering the urbanization process that has occurred since Abraham Erb's arrival in 1805), and self sustaining body.
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Flowcharts

Water Quality Analysis Methods
Watershed Regulators
Influences on the Watershed
Processes Controlling Watershed Conditions

here(300K) to see the map of where all twelve sites are located along the creek.

Site One is our control site. It is the headwaters of Laurel Creek and it provides reference for comparison by other sites. Site Two is the first site chosen on campus, and is located directly after the water exits from the two reservoirs upstream from the sampling point. These two reservoirs pose a potential influence on the water quality of the creek. Site Three is within the math and computer drain and is the only other site examined on campus. Site Three was chosen to find out if any negative effects occur as a result of drainage.

Site Four is after the creek has passed through the campus and before it meets with Clair Creek. This is strategically located to find out if activities on campus decrease the quality of the water, and to find out the quality of the water before it contacts with Clair Creek. This can then be compared with the results from Site Five to see the impact Clair Creek has on Laurel Creek. Site Six is Silver Lake located within Waterloo Park. This is the last point of sampling before the creek descends and becomes channeled under the Central Business District of the City of Waterloo.

After the creek emerges from the Central Business District the next point of sampling was Site Seven. Here the results of underground channelization can be examined by the change in water quality. Site Eight is within Hilliside Park and examines how a casual park setting effects the water quality of the creek. Site Nine is Forwell Creek so that the quality of Forwell Creek can be examined.

Site ten is located close to the Waterloo sewage treatment center, on University Avenue. This site was chosen to examine the impact that the Sewage Plant has on the creek. Site Eleven is before Laurel Creek intersects with the Grand River. This tells us (the reasoning for the ERS 280 project) what impact Laurel Creek has on the Grand River. Site Twelve is after Laurel Creek has entered the Grand River.

Site One

Site one is our control site. The water here is cool and clear and little if any human impacts exist. Flora surrounding the site included Yellow birch, Cedar, Tamarack, Bulrushes, and tall Sedges. Fauna included a Leopard Frog, Dragonflies and three types of Minnows. Sampling of this site occurred on the eastern side of the road, which travels through Schafers Woods which is an Environmentally Sensitive Area (ESA), for the Region of Waterloo. It then crosses 5 roads before entering Laurel Creek. reservoir.

Site Two

This is the first of many human impacts on the creek system. After leaving this area through a large bottom draw reservoir the creek travels through an agricultural area and a small wooded area before entering the Columbia Lake reservoir. Here the water exits through a smaller bottom draw dam before entering the creek once again. Right upon exit from the dam (in the open area), is Site Two. Site Two is characterized by high levels of turbidity and loss of clarity within the water. Gabon Baskets stabilize the stream banks in order to prevent the natural erosion which would be occurring in their absence. Flora included Purple Loosestrife, Willow, Goldenrod, and tall grasses. Fauna included Mallard Ducks and a Muskrat.

Site Three

Site Three is the math and computer drain on the campus of the University of Waterloo. Sampling at this site occurred within the drain itself and not upon entry into Laurel Creek. The entire area was engineered and constructed from concrete in order to release quick flows from storm water into the creek. Above the drain shrubbery existed to impart conceal the drain from the view of the roadway. Otherwise the drain was surrounded by a grassed area which was mowed directly up to the drain's walls.

Site Four

This stretch of Laurel Creek was examined prior to mixing with Clair Creek. The sides are fairly steep, but well vegetated, with many bushes covering the sides. Gabion baskets form the side of the river closest to Westmount road. There are fish found within this section of the creek, including Flying Fish.

The creek then flows under University through a culvert, with smooth steep cemented sides. The water is shallow, warm and quite murky.

Site Five

The measurements for this site were taken at Clair creek, which runs beside the fire hall on Westmount road. The creek then emerges form under Westmount road through a culvert. The bottom is covered extensively with gravel, along with some large rocks. The sides are composed of shallow gravel slopes with no vegetation. The water is quite warm, shallow and clear. Two hundred meters from the culvert the stream enters into a park like setting with flat sides and grassed edges, shaded by trees.

Site Six

Site Six is Silver Lake in Waterloo Park. The lake was examined prior to a culvert opening under Caroline St. The sides are comprised mainly of Gabion baskets with little vegetation except for sparse bushes that have crept down to water level. The water is quite deep, warm and murky. There is a distinct odour to the water, and an excessive amount of waterfowl are found within the water; causing a natural form of pollution.

Site Seven

Site Seven is where Laurel Creek emerges from under Waterloo's Central Business District. The stream is released from a sanitary sewer pipe that extends out from under Weber street. Gabion baskets surround the opening to the stream, creating a steep slope which would allow for little erosion and a lot of infiltration. Ten meters down the stream, natural sides begin, possessing a moss covered rocky bottom. Large rocks in parts, create riffles in the water.

Sampling occurred 50 meters downstream from the bridge where natural sides surround the channel. The sides here consist of mud banks that turn drastically into steep grass covered cliffs. The stream is quite shallow across its width, with a deepest area of 22.5cm. (This is excluding the deeper area created under the water flow of the sediment trap/aeration dam.) In the stream bed is a pipe that runs parallel to the water flow. The water is murky, warm and flows fairly slowly. Few plants existed in this area. Fauna consisted of, grasses, wildflowers, weeds, Dames rocket, Stinging nettle and Bulrushes; located mainly on the steep cliffs. At the top of the cliffs are parking lots that are covered entirely with asphalt, as well as a large dumpster beside the mall adjacent to the parking lot.

The stream continues on for quite some distance in a park like setting, until it is forced underground again and reemerges in a town house complex. The stream continues through here with deeply eroded sides and large numbers of waterfowl. It is then forced under University avenue, where it resurfaces in Hillside Park.

Site Eight

Site Eight is located before Forewell Creek drains into Laurel Creek. The area sampled is 100 meters downstream of a foot bridge. The foot bridge is connected to a gravel path which follows one side of the stream. Trees are located on the opposite side of the stream but most are set approximately 50 feet from the stream edge. As the stream emerges from under the foot bridge it is met by large shrubs on both sides. These shrubs shade most of the creek. Vegetation surrounding the creek includes tall grasses, wild flowers, purple Dames rocket, Forget me not and Canada thistle. The treed side of the stream is laden with various grasses while the opposite side of the creek supports an algae bloom in the sunny stagnate water. The stream is composed of gravel and silt and displays moss covered rocks, creating riffles in the water. The stream is very shallow, displaying a few 'islands' of silt and gravel. Garbage is strewn throughout the stream, including an old car tire, and pop and beer bottles. Despite this there were many water fowl, Dragon flies, butterflies and a wide variety of birds in the immediate area. Banks were naturally vegetated, showing some under cutting, with an fairly steep slope.

Site Nine

Site Nine is Forewell Creek. It was studied prior to mixing with Laurel Creek. The area studied occurs just after a small foot bridge. This area is small, shallow, clear and colder than the other sites studied, as the water is relatively quick flowing. The bottom is comprised of cobbles and rocks causing riffles within the water. After the stream emerges from under the foot bridge, it is partially shaded by shrubs. It then begins a sharp meander, which is extensively undercutting one side. The banks are quite steep on this side, but because of deposition, the opposite side has a slow, rocky incline to the grass bank. Grasses and Burdock surround the stream and aid in erosion control. In addition Red Ash, Rough Cinque Foil, and common Water cress were also found on the stream edges. Trees are located on the undercut side (Yellow birch and Ash) that aid in the shading and cooling of the stream. A three inch crayfish was identified as well as Minnows and Water spiders. White pines and maples are also found near by that housed a large number of birds.

Site Ten

Located close to the Waterloo sewage treatment center, on University Ave is Site Ten. The area tested had very little shade and the water was very shallow. The banks were well vegetated, as the sewage treatment plant left approximately 10 meters of grass uncut. There was a drain flowing into the stream up from the sampling site. The creek bottom was quite rocky and the water seemed to be flowing well.

Site Eleven

This site was located approximately 300 meters from the entrance to the Grand River. The area was well shaded with trees. There is a restaurant and parking lot close by. The water was deep in places and there was a substantial amount of garbage in the creek at this point. The creek bottom contained large rocks and the bottom was composed of gravel.

Site Twelve

The Grand River. This testing spot was extremely deep and poorly shaded. The width was beyond what we were able to safely measure with our tools. The area is close to a residential area and businesses. The banks are well vegetated, however, the river is easily accessed by people. The river bottom did not contain many rocks the bottom as it was very mucky.

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Methods

The sampling was conducted by the ERS 280 Applied Field Studies class, over a 10 day period, from June 12-June 21, and therefore provides only a snapshot of the creeks condition. The class was divided into four equal groups of six students. Each group sampled at three points within the creek, from the head waters until discharge into the Grand River, using the sampling techniques listed below. Once this was completed each group had to interpret their results for an oral presentation. Due to time constraints, each groups' level of analysis was lacking. For this reason we felt that further analysis of the creek was necessary. In addition there is a need for the collaboration of the findings, so that a picture of the entire creek can be established. We also feel that there is not only the need to provide factual evidence on the true condition of the creek, but also that there is a need for continuing WATgreen assignments to be conducted on this topic.

"Traditionally physical and chemical data have been collected during aquatic habitat inventories and assessments. These parameters, such as dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature and velocity are relatively easy to measure and lend themselves to numerical analysis. The major drawback is that they are instaneous measures. Rapid short term changes that may occur between sampling periods go unnoticed. So benthic invertebrates are collected to overcome this problem" (Water Management, Policies, Guidelines, Provincial Water Quality Objectives of the Ministry of Environment and Energy, 1995). For this assignment we can therefore rely upon the benthic community, a community that lives in the creek year round. Due to the nature of the benthic community, their ability to move from one area to another is limited. For example, invertebrates do not swim and therefore depend on the currents within a water system to move from one area to another. Unlike the human population, if the water quality is poor the species can not just relocate, they either adapt to the system or they die. Invertebrates can therefore be used as indicators of water quality and are essential to this study. We feel there is a need for continual sampling and recording of findings on the creek. This is because findings, other than invertebrates, can be examined with some amount of accuracy when compared to results from past years. The annual results will then become a basis for comparison between annums. As more data is collected more accurate conclusions can be drawn from the results, as the sampling number increases. Because this is only the first recording of results this paper only provides a snapshot of the creek's condition.

Since there are different standards of water quality, for different uses, we must determine what the water system is used for. For information on specific standards click on the following items: drinking, recreation, aesthetics, aquatic organisms survival.

However we must remember that standards have been set for general systems only without regard to specific situations, therefore we should use these standards with caution.

Depending on its use, we feel that good water quality generally has a low temperature, high dissolved oxygen, low biological oxygen demand (BOD), supports a diverse number of organisms, and contains small amounts of biological effluent.

It is for the following reasons that we feel that each of the aforementioned factors are important as indicators of good water quality and for these reasons we included them in our definition (of good water quality). If the water temperature is too warm, organisms intolerant of warm water conditions may disappear while those tolerant of warm water conditions may thrive. This results in a change of community structure.

It is also important to test the levels of oxygen in a water system. This is because life forms that live in water depend on oxygen to live, much like humans depend on oxygen in the air to breath. Low oxygen levels can be an indicator of organic and inorganic pollution. The concentration of dissolved oxygen can be affected by variations in temperature, photosynthetic activity and river discharge. High oxygen levels therefore permit a variety of life forms to exist within the creek creating biodiversity.

The biological oxygen demand (BOD) of water is the amount of oxygen required to oxidize the organic matter by aerobic decomposition to a stable inorganic form. High levels of BOD indicate that most of the oxygen within the water is being used to decay material rather than to support life within the creek.

Biological effluent is made up of human sewage, farm runoff and industrial effluent (food production plants). Biological effluent consists of waste products that are biological in nature. Biological effluents are major vectors of disease dispersal because many pathogens are carried in the waste of biological beings. Obviously for this reason high levels of biological effluent would be disastrous for life within the creek or for consumption by humans.

We feel these factors best represent good quality water and are easily testable to some degree of accuracy.

In order to discover whether each of the 12 sites along Laurel Creek met our requirements for good water quality the following measurements were taken:

  1. turbidity
  2. chloride
  3. conductivity
  4. colliform testing (fecal and other)
  5. suspended sediment
  6. nitrate
  7. phosphate
  8. water temperature
  9. biological oxygen demand (5 day)
  10. invertebrates (benthic community)

Testing was conducted using the following methods:

Fecal Coliform

This test was applied in a sterile environment. The samples were diluted so that a measurable/countable number of colonies would grow. The samples were embedded on filter paper using a filtration system. The filter paper was then dried using dye, and the was added onto the filter paper using a pipette. The colonies were incubated for one day, and the globules were then counted.

Total Coliform

The Coliform test was completed in a sterile environment. Samples were diluted so that a measurable/countable number of colonies would grow. The samples were embedded on filter paper using a filtration system. Filter paper was dyed using DYE, added onto the filter paper using a pipette. The colonies were incubated for one day, and then the globules were counted.

pH

pH levels were measured the morning after the samples were collected, using a Beckman Elecrtromate pH meter, model number 1009.

Turbidity

Turbidity was measured the morning after the samples were collected, using a Hach Turbidimeter, model number 2100a. Turbidity is measured in Jackson Turbidity Units(JTU).

Conductivity

Conductivity was measured the morning after the samples were collected, using a Radiometer Conductivity meter, model number CDM 2e.

Suspended Solids

A measure of water was taken from the general sample container and diluted. The samples were embedded on dried, pre-weighed filter paper using a filtration system. The filter paper was dried again, and the filter paper was measured again. The measure of suspended solids was the difference between the "before" and "after" weights.

Nitrates

For each site's sample, two glass bottles were filled from the general sample container. One for each site was used as a control. Nitraver 6 Nitrate Reagent was added to the bottle and shaken. The contents were compared using a Spectrometer. For sample site #2, it was necessary to filter the samples.

Phosphates

Conversion from % to mg/L using graph. Phosphates were measured from the general water sample.

Biological Oxygen Demand

The samples were stored in a dark, room temperature cupboard for 5 days. Oxygen levels were then measured using the Dissolved Oxygen meter, YSI model 57 DO meter. BOD was calculated by subtracting this reading from the original DO value.

Invertebrates

The invertebrates were randomly selected from each site by overturning rocks within a meter squared area. At the lab they in order to retrieve the samples from the mud, the standard salt flotation technique was used. Invertebrates were then placed in peatree dishes for further examination and determination of species type.

Shovel Sample

The sample for each site was placed in its own shallow pan, which was then opened then topped up with water. A heaping cupful of salt was added. As invertebrates floated to the surface, they were placed in a bottles with formalin.

D-Frame Net

The samples from the D-frame Net were placed in the sample bottle along with those recovered from the shovel sample.

Choloride

To test for chloride Argentometirc method was used. Chloride was measured in mg/L. Chloride samples were taken from the general water sample.

Temperature

Water temperature was taken using the YSI model 57 DO meter, for until the temperature reading became constant.

Identification

Using a microscope, the specimens were counted and identified down to their family and genus.

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Analysis of Results

Analysis of Site One

Site One is located at the head waters of Laurel Creek. At this site water bubbles up from underground springs. The water here is of fairly good quality, and could be used as a control area for comparisons with the other sites tested. The only problem with this site is that 630 units per ml of fecal coliforms are present, where there should be none. Since fecal coliforms existed at all sites though, this fact will be disregarded and this site will still remain to be the best quality. Good water quality indicators are present in this area including Catasfly and Caddisworms. The BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) levels are acceptable at 2 mg/L, and the temperature is 20.9 degrees Celsius. This temperature falls in the range of 20-21 degrees Celsius, which is the range that may support trout and salmon. Trout quality water is considered to be good quality. The turbidity level here, at 2 JTU, is below the 3.8 JTU level, denoting good water quality.

Analysis of Site Two

Site Two occurs just after the creek exits Columbia lake. Few good water quality invertebrates were found living here. Among those found were Biting Midge Larva, and Blackfly larva. For the testing conducted we discovered that the water temperatures at this site increased to 25.5 degrees Celsius. This temperature is too high to support salmon or trout. In addition the turbidity level has increased drastically to 25 JTU. These findings denote poor water quality.

Analysis of Site Three

At Site Three which is the Math and Computer Drain, located on campus, the water quality is very poor. There were no organisms found at all. This supports the theory that the water quality is too poor to support good quality indicators. The site could not even support poor water quality indicators. In addition, the coliform levels found, were high at 13 000 mg/L, where there should be none present.

Analysis of Site Four

Site Four is where Clair Creek joins Laurel Creek. Aesthetically the water in this area appears to be cloudy and polluted due to the high turbidity and suspended solid levels. Due to limited testing ability we had to rely on the invertebrates to determine what the actual quality of the water is. Fortunately when sampling, good water quality invertebrates were found, including Crayfish and Caddisworms.

Analysis of Site Five

At Site Five, all test were in the average range for Laurel Creek. Compared with the rest of the creek the water quality here is fair. The invertebrates found in this area are good water quality indicators, thereby reinforcing the results of water testing completed at this site.

Analysis of Site Six

Site Six is Silver Lake. Although high turbidity and suspended solids levels were found here, the presence of good water quality invertebrates indicates that the quality of the water remains stable.

Analysis of Site Seven

Site Seven located in the Central Business District of Waterloo, was found to be terrible. According to our test results the turbidity level, suspended solid level and the coliform levels were too high. Turbidty level - 20 JTU Suspended Solids - 35 mg/L Coliform level - 4500 units /ml Low dissolved Oxygen is present at 4.8 mg/L, meaning that adequate fish populations can not be supported here. Even though good water quality invertebrates are present, exceptionally high levels of coliform are found in this area. If coliform levels are very high then the area can not be used for recreation or drinking. In addition fish and wildlife inhabiting the area can not be consumed. Therefore we have determined that the water quality here is poor.

Analysis of Site Eight

Located in Hillside Park, Site Eight marks the return of high turbidity levels. However the quality of water here is beginning to improve. Considering the previous site this area shows improvement.

Analysis of Site Nine

Site Nine has no abnormally high testing levels and possesses invertebrates that indicate high water quality. Therefore the water here continues to improve.

Analysis of Site Ten

Site Ten is located beside the sewage treatment plant on University Avenue. Here high temperatures are present resulting from the shallow depth and low velocity of the water. The quality of water can not support salmon or trout, however; some good quality indicators were present. If it were not for the shallow depth of this section it would have the same quality as the previous section. Therefore it could be concluded that the water quality is fine but the channel depth must be deepened.

Analysis of Site Eleven

Site Eleven, behind Huggy's Restaurant and Tavern, showed high coliform levels and water temperatures (26.4 degrees Celsius). However, due to the presence of good quality indicators, the water should still be classified as good quality.

Analysis of Site Twelve

Site Twelve is where the Laurel Creek enters the Grand River. Here, the water is warm at 26.8 degrees Celsius, however, the water is deeper than the previous few sites and has a higher velocity. The higher temperatures may have been brought on by the high temperatures of the testing day. Regardless of the high temperatures the water quality at this site is good.

General Conclusions on the Twelve Sites

Based on our results at the twelve sites, we can see that from our particular snapshot of the creek, the condition of Laurel creek is not as bad as most people deem it to be. The section running through campus, due to the math drain, is of poor quality and this fact tends to influences peoples views. However, many other sections of the creek remain to be of good quality.

The Creek begins in a relatively natural state with good water quality conditions that could support trout along with many other species. Upon entering the Campus (at the University of Waterloo) the creek begins to degrade specifically at Site Three, the math and computer drain (located on campus), and Site Seven, exiting from underneath downtown Waterloo. After Site Seven the creek begins its recovery process.

Due to the fact that this testing was a snapshot of the creek's condition, many more samples taken at specific intervals of time would be needed to make an accurate judgment. From the perspective of our sampling the creek's condition appears to be fairly good as a whole. However a sample taken in the future could yield different results.

Insects Found at Each Site

Site One

All of the insects mentioned so far are indicators of good water quality. However, 1 blood sucker leech larva and 3 midge larva were found at Site One. These two species are indicators of poor water quality. We still feel the water is of good quality because poor water indicators will live anywhere and good water quality water indicators will live only in good water.

Site Two

The problem with using these 2 specimens as indicators of good or poor water quality is that midges are often found in poor water while black flies are often found in high water quality. These midges are capable of surviving in good or poor water quality. The insects as biological indicators suggest that Site Two has fairly good water quality.

Site Three

No organisms were found in the drain.

Site Four

Good Water Indicators

All of the above invertibrates are good water quality indicators.

Bad Water Indicators

The water is of good quality. This is because poor water indicators will live anywhere and good water quality water indicators will live only in good water.

Site Five

Good Water Quality Indicators

The above invertebrates are good water quality indicators.

Bad Water Quality Indicators

The water is of good quality. This is because poor water indicators will live anywhere and good water quality water indicators will live only in good water.

Site Six

Good Water Quality Indicator

The above invertebrate is a good water quality indicator.

Bad Water Quality Indicators

  • Diptera-Chironomidae (Blood Worms)-2
  • Dystiscidae)-1
  • Oligochaeta-32
  • Tendipes (midges)-1

    Even though there is only one good water quality indicator we feel that the water is of good quality. This is because poor water indicators will live anywhere and good water quality water indicators will live only in good water.

    Site Seven

    Good Water Indicators

    All of the insects mentioned above are indicators of good water quality.

    Poor Water Indicators

    The water is of good quality. This is because poor water indicators will live anywhere and good water quality water indicators will live only in good water.

    Site Eight

    Good Water Indicators

    All of the insects mentioned above are indicators of good water quality.

    Poor Water Indicators

    The water is of good quality. This is because poor water indicators will live anywhere and good water quality water indicators will live only in good water.

    Site Nine

    Good Water Indicators

    All of the insects mentioned above are indicators of good water quality.

    Poor Water Indicators

    The water is of good quality. This is because poor water indicators will live anywhere and good water quality water indicators will live only in good water.

    Site ten

    Good Water Indicators

    The insect mentioned above is an indicator of good water quality.

    Poor Water Indicators

    The water is of good quality. We feel this because even though we found an abundance of poor water quality invertebrates the presence of a good water quality indicator is more significant than many poor indicators. This is because poor water indicators will live anywhere and good water quality water indicators will live only in good water.

    Site eleven

    Good Water Quality Indicators

    Diptera-Simulium (black fly larva) )-141

    The insect mentioned above is an indicator of good water quality.

    Poor Water Quality Indicators

    The water is of good quality. We feel this because even though we found an abundance of poor water quality invertebrates the presence of a good water quality indicator is more significant than many poor indicators. This is because poor water indicators will live anywhere and good water quality water indicators will live only in good water.

    Site twelve

    The water is of good quality. This is because poor water indicators will live anywhere and good water quality water indicators will live only in good water.


    Errors in Sampling

    Factors which may have had impact on results:

    1. All sampling should be conducted on the same day, at the same time of day in order to produce accurate results.
    2. Because of the size of the watershed, 74km2 it was not possible to walk its entire length, therefore it was not possible to determine all sources of contamination to the creek.
    3. In order to collect statistically valid results this study would need to be undertaken for at least a year at a time with sampling occurring at least once per week.
    4. Groups or individuals who are sampling should be instructed as to the proper sampling techniques, and care should be given to properly follow all of these techniques in order to produce correct results.
    5. An opaque bottle should be used, in lieu of a transparent one with covering, when sampling for BOD in order to ensure that no light is able to enter the bottle during its 5 day waiting period.
    6. Invertebrates should be collected in a uniform manner in order to produce comparative results. For example invertebrates should only be collected within a square meter location at each site so that one group does not collect invertebrates from four square meters of river bed and another group only collects one square meter of invertebrates from the river bed.
    7. Quantitative results of invertebrates are invalid due to the above sampling error (i.e. the actual number of invertebrates collected has no bearing on the results). However invertebrates do serve as qualitative data for the presence of invertebrates indicate the quality of the water within the creek. Factors which may have had impact on results:
    8. Within the time the sampling occurred there was a heat wave, which may have influenced water temperature and dissolved oxygen.
    9. The university spread fertilizer on its grounds on June 19, after only two groups had sampled. (Impacts may have been greater if there had been rain afterward)

    Back to where you were


    Conclusion

    We strongly feel that the University of Waterloo, as an educational institution, with the resources made available for our use, should be more active in improving the creek. Necessary improvements should be made in an attempt to create sustainability and viability within the Laurel Creek system. A definition of sustanablity should include improving degraded systems and causing no further damage to existing systems. Therefore, the creek should be one item of focus. Even if only a small part of the creek runs through the campus, we as an educational institution, should set the example and work on its improvement. Not only would an activity like this benefit the community and organisms dwelling in or near the creek, but it would also act as a practical learning experience to students of many disciplines. Practical learning experience could include, increasing the riparian zones to decrease run-off, flood potential, and water fowl levels, as well as continued monitoring of the math and computer drain. Back to where you were


    Recomendations

    1. There are many storm sewer drains that drain into Laurel Creek. These should be redirected into a treatment plant, so that the storm water can be treated before entering into the creek.
    2. Articles in the Gazette, Record, Chronicle and Imprint, should be published informing people of the negative effects of feeding the waterfowl. In addition students should be informed of the waterfowl overpopulation, and how feeding them makes this problem worse. There should be a by-law created out-lawing the feeding of ducks. Fines could be enforced for non-compliance.
    3. At some sites, namely Site Seven, Biological Oxygen Demand and Dissolved Oxygen levels are quite low. This could be remedied by strategically placing rocks to aid aeration of the water.
    4. Because plants on the creek edge have been removed, the creek has widened in some places at an abnormal rate. As a result the water travels quite slowly in these areas (namely Site Ten). This causes warmer, shallower water. Due to the shallow depth, fish and water fowl populations are drastically decreased in this area. Also, the negative impacts on the stream are amplified, because the water is so shallow and slow moving. The creek could then be made narrower (using soft core engineering techniques) to help deepen and speed the creek.
    5. Girl Guides and Boy Scouts or young children in school classes could start an 'adopt a creek' program. They could then be made responsible for cleaning a section of the creek and planting of vegetation around the creek, or whatever else is needed in their area.
    6. Classes should be introduced that examine different aspects of the creek other than water quality, i.e. Geographers and Engineers could look at erosion and could gain practical learning experience about the creeks' well being and how to maintain it.
    7. Green day on frosh week should devote part of their time to cleaning the creek and planting native species around it.

    There is a need to include a riparian zone around all sections of the creek in order to decrease the amount of runoff, whether it be from construction, industrial processes, businesses, or residential areas. Benefits of a riparian zone are listed below.

    Benefits of a Riparian Zone on Laurel Creek

    It is our hope that these recommendations be considered seriously, and will cause a positive change on Laurel Creek. We hope that these recommendations will bring about the following changes in years to come. We would like to have Laurel Creek return to its' natural balance of erosion and sedimentation, becoming drinking water quality again. The creek would never again be sacrificed for the sake of human progress. Channeled flow under the Central Business District would be removed and the damage done to it by the underground flow reversed. A stable, natural and large riparian zone would surround the creek decreasing the amount of pollution caused by runoff and waterfowl. We would like to see a high quality, aesthetically pleasing creek, that provides a habitat for a diverse number of species. The creek would then be used as a learning tool so that the general public may learn how a balanced ecosystem functions. Through these educational processes the public will feel more closely tied to the creek and be less likely to take advantage of it. We would like for the students of the University of Waterloo to feel proud of their campus, which includes the creek as a valuable, pollution free, natural resource. We would also like to be able to use Columbia Lake for recreational purposes, as was originally intended. Back to where you were


    Bibliography


    Appendix

    Site
    #
    pH
    Cond
    Turb
    Nitr
    Phos
    Temp
    BOD
    CL
    TC
    FC
    Source
    1
    8.3
    500
    2
    5.72
    0.001
    20.9
    2
    50
    3000
    630
    Cons Area
    2
    7.9
    440
    25
    2.2
    0.006
    25.5
    8.2
    50
    n/a
    50
    Col. Lake
    3
    7.5
    560
    5
    3.52
    0.001
    14
    -3.5
    340
    n/a
    13000
    West. & Univ.
    4
    7.9
    550
    27
    0.88
    0.007
    18
    3.5
    2
    800
    600
    Clare
    5
    8
    598
    17
    1.76
    0.005
    16.5
    1.9
    41
    9000
    2300
    Silver
    6
    8.25
    560
    23
    0.44
    0.006
    20
    4.85
    1.7
    1300
    580
    Lincoln Plaza
    7
    7.9
    900
    20
    2.86
    0.0078
    22.7
    7.8
    325
    4500
    700
    Before Forwell
    8
    8.05
    990
    13
    2.86
    0.0054
    23.4
    0.45
    370
    4000
    50
    Forwell
    9
    8.1
    1800
    3
    4.68
    n/a
    20.6
    1.2
    485
    2000
    30
    Sewage
    10
    8.6
    700
    5
    1.76
    0.0024
    24.9
    3.7
    630
    1200
    3400
    Huggy's
    11
    8.3
    800
    4
    3.96
    0.001
    26.4
    5.1
    678
    50
    6200
    Grand
    12
    8.6
    300
    3
    6.6
    0.001
    26.8
    3.8
    42
    90
    670

    Legend

    Back to where you were

    Glossary

    Aciculate-Aciculates are aquatic earthworms which are part of the Annelida classification. They are segmented worms with soft muscular bodies. Back to where you were.
    Hirudinea (leeches)-These leeches have a mouth surrounded by and oral sucker. They are highly muscular and contractile. However, not all are blood-sucking. Back to where you were.

    aesthetics - Water systems should be free from offensive odors and colours and should prove to be pleasing to the user.
    Back to where you were.
    Asellus- Is a subgrouping which contains in it's group Aciculate, Hydropsyche and Planaria. Back to where you were.
    Astenophylax-This is a form of catasfly in the catasfly house. These are very important for trout and other fish and play a significant role in the aquatic food chain. Back to where you were.
    Baisaechna- A type of dragon fly nymph usually found under rocks. This predator species are climbers and sprawlers who capture their prey by engulfing them. Back to where you were.

    (BOD)-The biological oxygen demand (BOD) of water is the amount of oxygen required to oxidize the organic matter by aerobic decomposition to a stable inorganic form.
    Back to where you were. Bythinia - The shell is smooth and the outer lip of aperture is thin. Back to where you were.
    Chauliodes -They are called fish flies. They are grayish-brown with whitish spots and do not favor swift streams. They are resilient as one survived formaldehyde exposure for 2 days and 100 proof alcohol for 3 hours in a petri-dish. Back to where you were.
    Chironomus-Chironomidae-Black Fly Larva Back to where you were.

    Chloride-Chloride enters water systems through road runoff and mining. The effects on steam systems are very detrimental. Chloride is a form of salt, and freshwater species can not survive in high salt environments. (Osmosis)
    Back to where you were. Chirononmous- This invertebrate likes deep water. It is a burrower that feeds on sediments material tolerant. A type of black fly larvae. Tolerant of low oxygen levels associated with deeper water. Back to where you were.
    Coleoptera- A type of water beetle. Back to where you were.

    Colliform-Fecal contaminants can introduce a variety of pathogens into waterways, including bacteria, viruses, protozoa and parasitic worms. Waterborne disease remains a major hazard in many parts of the world. It is important to monitor water systems for fecal coliforms in order to prevent the spread of disease.
    Back to where you were.Conductivity-Conductivity test for the amount of dissolved inorganic ions in water. If conductivity is high then the water usually contains different inorganic materials such as heavy metals, phosphorus, nitrogen and silicates.
    Back to where you were. Corethra- lives in lentic limnetic habitats (including ponds and bogs). Back to where you were.
    Crustacea-These are a class of aquatic orthopods that breathe either with gills or through their body surface. They have two pairs of antennae. Back to where you were.

    Days-All required sampling was taken within a span of ten days with the first sample on June 12 and the last on June 21. Fortunately, within this time occurred no rainfall, temperature and humidity were relatively equal
    Back to where you were. Decopada Procambarus - A type of crayfish. Back to where you were.
    Diptera- Specialized two wing flies, including the common house fly and mosquitoes. Back to where you were.
    Diptera Simulidae- Have a single proley projecting anteriorly form prothorax. Most commonly called blackfly larvae. Back to where you were.
    Diptera-Chronomidae- A highly specialized two winged fly. Back to where you were.
    Dipetera-Simulidae- blackfly pupae. Back to where you were.

    drinking - Any water intended for human consumption should not contain any disease-causing organisms or hazardous concentration of toxic chemicals or radioactive substances (Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 1983.) The recommended limits for the tests conducted are:

    Turbidity -1 NTU

    Chloride - 250 mg/l

    Conductivity - na

    Colliform - zero mg/l fecal coliforms

    Suspended sediments - na

    Nitrates - <10mg/l

    Phosphates - 0.2mg/l

    Water temperature - 15 degrees Celsius

    Biological Oxygen Demand - <4mg/l
    Back to where you were.
    Dytiscidae- An aquatic invertebrate often more commonly called (predacious) diving beetle. Back to where you were.

    effluent-Biological effluent is made up of human sewage, farm runoff and industrial effluent ( food production plants ). Biological effluent consists of waste products that are biological in nature. Biological effluents are major vectors of disease dispersal because many pathogens are carried in the waste of biological beings.
    Back to where you were.
    Elmid - These critters cling to vegetation or debris in well aerated streams. Back to where you were.
    Ephemeroptera(May flies)-These are small to medium sized terrestrial insects, with delicate, multiveined , transparent wings. These wings are held together vertically when the insect is at rest. May flies are usually found around fresh water, hovering in swarms. Back to where you were.
    Ephemeroptera (mayfly larvae)-Two types of Ephemeroptera existed within Laurel Creek they are: 1). Caenidae 2). Empherollidae These mayflies are of small to medium size. They are terrestrial insects with delicate many veined wings. They occur in a variety of standing and running water. These invertebrates are collectors and scrapers and feed on a variety of detritus and algae. Back to where you were.
    ESA-Environmentally Sensitive Areas or ESA's are remnant natural, or in many cases man modified, ecosystems or landforms whose sensitivity stems more often from the attitude man should hae toward them, than from any physical senstivity they may possess. Back to where you were.
    Gerris- Most commonly called water-bug, usually found on the surface of water. Water-bugs are a form of stiator (a predator that captures prey through scavenging and piercing of the outer body of its victim). Back to where you were.
    Helobdella- A temporary parasite on fish, frogs and turtles. Occasionally attracted to humans. Back to where you were.
    Hydrophilus (predator)- A type of beetle that uses it sharp beak to suck liquid from prey. Back to where you were.
    Hydropsyche - These are known as Caddisworms. They are mostly aquatic herbivores but some are known as carnivores. They are important for fish food and as a consequence are used often as fish bait. They develop in high numbers and attach to rocks in flowing streams. Back to where you were.
    Hydropsyche Simulans Ross-These are part of the Trichoptera classification(Caddis flies) -see Trichoptera (caddisfly) . Back to where you were.

    Inorganic-Inorganic pollution generally enters water systems through runoff from farmers fields and effluents from industrial plants (pulp and paper mills). The two main inorganic pollutants are phosphorous and nitrogen. Inorganic pollutants lead to the Eutrophication of water systems. Eutrophication is the enrichment of waters by inorganic plant nutrients.
    Back to where you were.
    Isopoda- Can be either found in marine or fresh water. Most commonly known as an aquatic sowbug. Back to where you were.

    Limnephilus -These are stout, humped back looking flies. The female black flies are viscous biters. They do not carry disease in our country but have caused death in animals due to lose of blood and emotional shock. Their larva live in streams, often in large numbers, where they attach to objects in the water. They are large and widely distributed, and the larva occur chiefly in ponds and slow moving streams. Back to where you were.
    Back to where you were. Nais(bristleworm)- many different types. Back to where you were.
    Naisiachna-A type of dragon fly nymph. Back to where you were.
    Neophylax- Neophylax is another catasfly. It has wing cases that look like small particles of pebbles stuck together. It has antennae, legs and encases its body in this case. The Neophylax gets oxygen from the currents in streams. Back to where you were.

    Nitrate-Nitrogen enters water systems through farm runoff and sewage treatment plants. Nitrogen loading can lead to the increased growth of blue green algaes. High levels of nitrogen can cause an increase in plant growth and therefor can lead to eutrophication. Eutrophication causes many changes such as:

    1. Species diversity decreases and the dominant biota change
    2. Plant and animal biomass increases
    3. Turbidity increases
    4. Rate of sedimentation increases
    5. Anoxic (low oxygen ) conditions may develop

    The problems associated with these effects are:

    1. Treatment of potable water may be difficult and the supply may have an unacceptable taste or odor
    2. The water may be injurious to health
    3. Increased vegetation may impede water flow and navigation
    4. Commercially important species may disappear

    Back to where you were. Oligochaeta - Two types 1)Annelida 2)Arciculate -similar to common earthworms usually occur on the side of streams, never/seldom within the water itself. Back to where you were.

    Organic-Organic pollution originates from domestic sewage (raw or treated), urban runoff, industrial effluent and farm wastes. Organic pollution causes problems because the sewage contains pathogens that may be hazardous to populations of different species including humans. For example:

    1. Bacteria
      • Salmonella typhi - typhoid fever
      • Vibrio cholerae - cholera
    2. Viruses
      • Enteroviruses - meningitis, infectious hepatitis
      • Rotaavirus - diarrhoea, entritis
    3. Protozoa
      • Entamoeba histolytica - diarrhoea
      • *Crytosporidium sp - diarrhoea, stomach cramps
    4. Helminths
      • Taenia saginata - tape worm
    * Cryptosporidium was found in Kitchener - Waterloo's drinking water in the summer of 1993.
    Back to where you were.

    oxygen-It is important to test the levels of oxygen in a water system. This is because life forms that live in water depend on oxygen to live, much like humans depend on oxygen in the air to breath. Low oxygen levels can be an indicator of organic and inorganic pollution. The concentration of dissolved oxygen can be affected by variations in temperature, photosynthetic activity and river discharge.
    Back to where you were.

    pH-pH is a measure of the balance between acidity and alkalinity. It is measured exponentially on a scale between 0-14. Most lakes have a pH between 6-9. A water system with a pH below 5 often implies biological damage, below 4 always means damage has occurred. pH is also important as it modifies solubility and toxicity of many compounds.
    Back to where you were.

    Phosphate-Phosphate is a chemical composed of salt or ester of phosphoric acid. It could be included in many different fertalizers in the form of phosphoric acid.
    Back to where you were. Planaria- A type of flat worm. Back to where you were.

    recreation -Maximum levels for recreational use.

    Turbidity - 5-50 NTU

    Chloride - na

    Conductivity - na

    Colliform - <100 mg/l fecal coliforms

    Suspended sediments - na

    Nitrates - 20mg/l

    Phosphates - <.10 mg/l

    Water temperature - No less Than 15 Degrees Celsius no Greater than 25 Degrees Celsius

    Biological Oxygen Demand - na
    Back to where you were.

    Reservoir-A reservoir is a water holding area for a region, its location is usually engineered by the city or municipality to act as a catchment area in order to protect the city from flash flooding and severe drought. There are many pros and cons to reservoirs as is listed below:

    Pros

    1. Historically served to power mills, created economic growth through the production of goods, i.e. Saw mill, Flour mill etc.
    2. Act as flood control, minimize damage to urban areas through increased storage capacity.
    3. Can be areas utilized for recreational purposes. Boating, fishing, water-skiing etc.
    4. Can be utilized as a recognized natural area and serve educational purposes. As a natural area, an area under preservation, it can serve as habitat or temporary habitat for a variety of species.

    Cons

    1. Can create major environmental problems.
    2. Can cause a major decrease in the capacity of the stream to be able to carry its load, and therefore become silted up.
    3. Can act as a heat sink causing:
      • an unnatural rise in temperature
      • decreased number of species (most favor cold water conditions)
      • loss of oxygen holding capabilities
    4. Historically have interrupted the pattern of migration of species to habitat. i.e. Spawning grounds for salmon and trout.
    5. Controversy over the mechanics of top or bottom draw reservoirs:
      • Top draws only remove the artificially warm water closest to the top of the reservoir, not allowing for sediment to be carried downstream.
      • Bottom draw reservoirs only remove the cold water laden with silt and move this downstream, causing a change in the ecosystem i.e. If the water entering the reservoir is 15 C and leaves the reservoir at only 4 C the downstream portion of the ecosystem will be drastically different from the upstream portion.
      • Usually become polluted because of stagnate conditions and increased inputs, problems include:
        • bird feces
        • tannin
        • phosphate froth
        • increased litter removes oxygen through the decay process

    Back to where you were. Simuliidae (black flies)-Simuliidae are part of the Diptera classification(flies, mosquitoes and midges). These are two winged flies whose mouth parts are adapted for lapping or piercing and sucking. Annelid (Aquatic Earthworms, Leeches, Polychaetes) Back to where you were.
    Simulim-A type of blackfly larvae which are slender, cylindrical and are a pale whitish brown to black. Back to where you were.

    survival-This information is not available at this time.
    Back to where you were.

    Suspended Sediments-Suspended sediments are particles in the water such as silt. If there are high amounts of suspended solids in the water then it becomes too turbid. Turbidity causes problems with drinking water, as the water must be filtered. Recreational activities in turbid water are discouraged for safety reasons (drowning victim may not be spotted in the water due to lack of water clarity).
    Back to where you were.

    suspended solids-Suspended sediments are particles in the water such as silt. If there are high amounts of suspended solids in the water then it becomes too turbid. Turbidity causes problems when trying to use the water for drinking. Also recreational activities in turbid water are discouraged for safety reasons( drowning victim may not be spotted in the water due to lack of water clarity).
    Back to where you were.

    sustainable - Sustainability involves not only the preservation of natural economic resources but also the improvement of systems that have been degraded. A balance should be maintained so that one resource is not compromised for another.
    Back to where you were.

    temperature-If the water temperature is too warm, organisms intolerant of warm water conditions may disappear while those tolerant of warm water conditions may thrive. This results in a change of community structure.
    Back to where you were. Tendipedibus- These invertebrates are generally burowers, but they take on two different forms they are either: 1). Collectors, gatherers and filterers. 2). Predators (engulfers and pincers) Back to where you were.
    Tendipes- Delicate flies usually less than 10mm long. They commonly occur in swarms around water. These are no biting midge larva. These are often encountered in swarms near water. They look like small, pale mosquitoes in their adult form. Their eggs are found in all types of water and are laid on the surface, substratum or on vegetation in the creek. Back to where you were.

    Thermal-Thermal pollution is caused by the increase in water temperature from an exterior source. For example, industrial plants often dump heated water back into a stream after they have used it. If temperature is too warm, intolerant species die. The overall number of species may increase in warm water, however, the biodiversity is diminished. Invertebrates can be good indicators of seasonal water temperatures. Increased water temperatures may also render organisms more vulnerable to the effects of toxic pollutants present in the water.
    Back to where you were. Trichoptera- These are small to medium sized, moth-like insects. They usually occur in colours of gray, black or brown, and most are nocturnal. Back to where you were.

    Trichoptera-Hydropyche (caseless caddisfly)- These are small to medium sized, moth-like insects. They usually occur in colours of gray, black or brown, and most are nocturnal. Back to where you were.
    Tubiflex-***no defn. Back to where you were.

    Turbidity-Turbidity measures the amount of suspended solids (dirt, algae, leaves, etc.) in the water. Turbidity is an important factor if water is to be used for recreational purposes. If water is too turbid then it makes recreational activities unsafe. Turbidity also effects fauna growing in the water as it reduces the light they need for photosynthesis. Turbid water cannot also be used for industrial uses(food procesing, cloth manufacturing etc)as the sediments cause blockage in pumping equipment.
    Back to where you were. White Sucker Fish-Type of sucker/bottom feeder Back to where you were.


    © 1995 Lisa Straus, Cassandra Daly, Matt Graham, Deborah Reid. All Rights Reserved.