A simple inventory procedure was followed to analize the Austrian Pine species within the study area. The procedure involved quantification of the species as well as their location. In order to evaluate the health of the species, they were classified into two categories, healthy and unhealthy. After consulting with Greg Michelenko and Larry Lamb at the University of Waterloo Environmental Studies Department, it was determined that a visual inspection would be sufficient for statistically analyzing the health of this species. Those trees that exhibited significant amounts of yellowing needles and dead branches were classified as unhealthy, the remainder of the trees were classified as healthy. To do a more in-depth evaluation of the extent and degree of the infestation of the Diplodia Blight disease it would require individual tree sampling and lab analysis. Due to time constraints and the lack of scientific expertise it was not possible to do an analysis of this nature.


The total number of Austrian Pines in the study area is: 478.

The number of healthy Austrian Pines in the study area is: 313 (65.5%)

The number of unhealthy Austrian Pines in the study area is: 165 (34.5%)

Particular areas of concern (With a high concentration of unhealthy cases):

7.0 Recommendations

As the Austrian pine species further succumbs to the Diplodia blight disease there is a need to identify suitable replacement species. In relation to making the campus sustainable and diverse it is desirable to replace this tree species with a variety of different native species. Native species are accustomed to the climatic conditions of the Great Lakes-St.Lawrence Forest Region making them hardier and suitable for planting. Being that the Austrian pine is a conifer, reasonable replacements will also need to be of the coniferous variety. Suitable replacement species are as follows:
* Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus)
form: oval outline, usually irregular or asymmetrical, moderately deep roots, reaches heights of 100 ft., 3 ft. diameter, loses lower branches when clumped in stands.
habitat: grows best on moist sandy or loamy soils, does grow on a variety of soil conditions, can grow in pure stands or mixed with other tree species.

* Red Pine (Pinus resinusa)
form: straight limbless trunk, short cylindrical or ovular in shape, often irregular shaped, droopy branches, 60-80 ft. in heigh, 1-2 ft. in diameter, moderately deep, wide spreading root system, loses lower branches when in clumped stands.
habitat: grows on poor soils, dominant on gravelly soils, can grow in mixture with other conifer species.

* Tamarack (Larix laricina)
form: slender, irregular arranged slender branches, not considered self pruning (branches fall off after dying), shallow wide-spread roots (moderate wind firmness), 30-70 ft. in height, 1-2 ft. in diameter, does not maintain foliage over winter.
habitat: grows in cold, wet, poorly drained places intolerant of shade, can be mixed with nearly any tree species.

* White Spruce (Picea glauca)
form: uniform conical, maintains branches on trunk unless densely crowded, shallow roots (not usually wind firm), grows up to 80 ft heigh and 2 ft in diameter.
habitat: grows in a variety of soils, grows well with other tree species, shade tolerant.

* Black Spruce (Picea mariana)
form: narrow crown with droopy upturned branches, in stands it does not maintain branches for much of its length, roots are shallow (not wind firm unless in clumps), slow growing, 30-50 ft in height and 6-10 inches in diameter.
habitat: grows in a variety of soils.

* Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis)
form: pyramidal or conical shaped, fairly rapidly growing, shallow wide-spreading roots (not usually wind firm) 60-70 ft. in height and 2-4 ft. in diameter, pruning tolerant.
habitat: grows on a variety of soils but requires moist cool locations, grows with a mix of other tree species.

* Balsam Fir (Abies balsamea)
form: symmetrical narrow pyramidal shape, low brances die if clumped in stands, shallow roots (not wind firm), 50-70 ft. in height and 1-2 ft. in diameter.
habitat: adaptable to a variety of soils and climate, grows well with a mix of other tree species.

* Eastern White Cedar (Thuja occidentalis)
form: pruned appearance, narrow conical to almost columnar in shape is irregular, grow to a maximum of 45 ft. high and 1 ft. in diameter.
habitat: grows in a variety of soils, will grow with a mixture of other tree species.

* Eastern Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana)
form: pyramidal or columnar in shape, deep root system if soil permits, irregular outline, grows to a maximum height of 30 ft. and a diameter of 8 inches.
habitat: grows on poor soils, will grow on rocky or gravel filled soil.
(Hosie, 1979)

Further we feel that a number of changes in landscaping pracices should be considered in the future. The recommendations are as follows:

When comparing the previous ERS285 project "Preliminary Tree Inventory" completed in the winter term of 1994, to the one we have just completed, there is a siginificant increase in the percentage of unhealthy Austrian Pines.

Their study indicated that approximately 11% of the Austrian Pines of their sample area within the southern portion of ring road were infected. The study being discussed in this paper indicates that approximately 35.5% are currently infected. Therefore, there has been a noticeable increase over 2 years. Actions must be taken immediately, in order to curb the degredation of the Austrian Pine species on the University of Waterloo campus.


Bernatzky, A. "Tree Ecology and Preservation", Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company. Amsterdam, 1978.

Briggs, D. "Fundamentals of Physical Geography", Copp Clark Pitman Ltd. Toronto, 1993.

Butin, Heinz. "Tree Diseases and Disorders", Oxford University Press. New York, 1995.

Dorney, R.S. "A Tree Saving manual For Developers, Builders, Designers, Arborists and Landscape Contractors", School of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Waterloo. Waterloo, 1984.

Hosie, R.C. "Native Trees of Canada", Fitzhenry and Whiteside Ltd. Toronto, 1979.

Meyer, Willian E. and Richard Murphy. "The Care and Feeding of Trees", Crown. New York, 1969.

Moll, Gary and Sara Ebenreck. "Shading Our Cities", Island Press. Washington, D.C., 1989.

University of Waterloo. "University of Waterloo Campus Master Plan". Waterloo, 1992.

Vaucher, Hugues. "Elsevier's Dictionary of Trees and Shrubs", Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company. Amsterdam, 1986.

Zion, Robert. "Trees for Architecture and the Lanscape", Ban Nostrand Reinhold Company. New York, 1968.

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