ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF

 

by

Emily Smit and Sabrina Bowman

for

Susan Wismer

ERS 250

 

 

 

 

Faculty of Environmental Studies

University of Waterloo

December 5, 2002

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  1. Abstract……………………………………………………………………………..…2
  2. Introduction……………………………………………………………………………2
  3. Project Definition…………………………………………………………………..….3
    1. The Scope…………………………………………………………………..….3

  4. System Analysis…………………………………………………………………...…..4
  5. Methodology……………………………………………………………………….….7
    1. Questions………………………………………………………………….…..8
    2. Information Gathered……………………………………………………….…9

  6. Literature Review………………………………………………………………….....10
  7. Schedule……………………………………………………………………………...12
  8. Limitations of the Study………………………………………………………...……13
  9. Results………………………………………………………………………………..13
    1. Product Analysis…………………………………………………………..…13
    2. Stockroom Audit…………………………………………………………..…14
    3. Energy Audit…………………………………………………………………15
    4. Waste Audit……………………………………………………………….…15
    5. Dry Cleaning Audit…………………………………………………..………16

10.0 Recommendations…………………………………………………………….…….16

10.1 Product Analysis……………………………………..…………………..…16

10.2 Stockroom Audit………………………………………..………………..…17

10.3 Energy Audit…………………………………………………..……..…..…18

10.4 Waste Audit……………………………………………………..……….…18

10.5 Dry Cleaning Audit…………………………………………………………19

10.6 Other Recommendations……………………………………………………19

11.0 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………….19

12.0 Appendix……………………………………………………………………………20

12.1 Interview A…………………………………………………………………20

12.2 Interview B………………………………………………………………….22

12.3 Product Analysis……………………………………………………………23

12.4 Energy Audit………………………………………………………………..23

12.5 Waste Audits………………………………………………………………..24

12.6 Dry Cleaning Audit…………………………………………………………26

13.0 References…………………………………………………………………………..26

1.0 Abstract:

The Federation of Students at the University of Waterloo runs six businesses on campus. These businesses are used every day by staff and students. We wanted to find out how sustainable one of these businesses was: Aussies, the convenience store in the basement of the Student Life Centre. Our aim was to note the environmental practices of Aussies and to make recommendations based on the interviews we conducted, the audits we did, and the general observations that we noted.

2.0 Introduction:

As a creator of "tomorrow’s leaders," the University of Waterloo itself needs to be a leader in many areas. One particular area is that of environmental awareness. Business, the local community and other universities are influenced by initiatives taken by the University of Waterloo. Therefore, environmental assessments and audits need to be done to keep Waterloo at the forefront of environmental stewardship. These assessments and audits help not only in regards to the environment, but also economically as more efficient ways of running the campus are implemented. With WATgreen and the Greening the Campus movement, the University of Waterloo has been able to become a more environmentally friendly place. For example, the 2002 Bomber audit made a number of recommendations to the Federation of Students or FEDS. One of these recommendations was to recycle beer bottle caps and plastic beer cups. This was not done on a regular basis before the audit was done. The Bomber has since been recycling these items under the advisory of the Federation of Students. Aussies, a student-run business like the Bomber, is the subject of this environmental assessment project.

3.0 Project Definition:

This project will consist of an environmental audit of Aussies, a convenience store in the lower level of University of Waterloo’s Student Life Center that also sells used clothing, small gift items and also act as a dry-cleaning outlet. The research question we are trying to answer is: Can Aussies function in a way that is more environmentally friendly without changing the services they provide to students and, if so, in what ways? For the purposes of this project, "environmentally friendly" will be defined in the same way as the environmentally related word "green." Merriam-Webster Online defines "green" as "tending to preserve environmental quality (as by being recyclable, biodegradable, or nonpolluting)." Once it is determined which areas of Aussies can be improved, a list of suggested actions to be taken by the FEDS in order to make it a "greener" business will be made.

3.1 The Scope

The scope of this project includes the boundaries of time and geography. In order do to a thorough environmental audit of Aussies, a lot of time is needed in order to conduct all necessary observations and conduct sufficient research on all the products sold. As there is not enough time to do all of this, we will be observing the amount of electrical power needed from an outside source, amount of waste generated and leaving the store, and finally, six products sold at Aussies will be selected and discussed in terms of their roles in the greening of the store. We have chosen this method of analyzing the products of Aussies since, in geographical terms, it is impossible for us to track each product to its source. Cost is not included in the scope of this project as it is not relevant to the project since there is not enough time to perform a thorough, and hence costly, environmental audit.

4.0 Systems Analysis:

This diagram below shows the relationship that Aussies has with the UW campus and with sources beyond the campus as they will be analyzed in this project. As a FEDS business, all processes into, within, and out of occur within the FEDS system. Hydro power comes in from the City of Waterloo to Aussies. Products also come from outside the University’s campus. There are, however, some products supplied from within the campus. The section of services includes the dry cleaning that Aussies sends out and

also the general service the store provides to students. Finally, waste produced by Aussies will be audited meanwhile; procedures dealing with waste management outside of the Student Life Center are beyond the scope of this project.

Improving Aussies in a way that is beneficial to the environment will also be beneficial to the University of Waterloo as well as to the township of Waterloo. Conserving energy keeps hydro costs down for the FEDS and puts less demand on Waterloo’s energy supply. The product analysis will hopefully reveal certain practices that can be improved for the benefit of the environment. For example, a certain brand might come from somewhere outside of Ontario. If the same product under a different brand is supplied somewhere in Waterloo, the suggestion to produce the product from the Waterloo supplier will be made. This cuts on transportation costs and pollution while economically supporting local business. There are many sources that give general suggestions for campuses so they might act in a "greener" fashion. One of these sources include: The Sierra Youth Coalition in Ottawa who’s initiatives include "Plants to clean your air, Political Mapping, and The Food Coop Demonstration Garden" among other projects. Past ERS 250 and WATgreen projects also have valuable information and suggestions on the topic of sustainable campuses.

Involved in the business of Aussies are the three main actor groups: core actors, supporting actors, and shadow actors. When figuring out the actors, "there are numerous advanced methods for analysis but generally you will rely on scholarship (reading academic journals and other reputable sources), [and] interviews…to determine who the actors are and what social rules exist." As interviews have not yet been conducted, the following list of actor groups and their participants are subject to change. Core actors, those who are continuously and intensively involved with the issue of concern include the new manager who will be running things, and the staff who do some product orders and work at Aussies on a daily basis. The supporting actors include Chris Di Lullo, FEDS VP Administration & Finance, members of the University’s environmental clubs, and other students who actively participate in the improvement of campus activities. These actors are less involved that core actors, but can exert a significant effect on decisions pertaining to Aussies. Finally, shadow actors, who are affected by what happens at Aussies but are not involved with the way it is run includes all students and customers who shop and use the services at Aussies.

The above actors diagram shows how core actors work within the Aussies system. The supporting actors influence the decision-making core actors, which, in turn, affect the customers, shadow actors, of the business.

The targeted audiences of this project are the Federation of Students who have asked for this environmental audit to be done, as well as the staff of Aussies and the students of the University of Waterloo for general environmental education purposes. Hopefully it will motivate change in each of these groups that will benefit the environment.

5.0 Methodology:

The methods for this assessment revolve around a triangulation method of research. This triangulation is made up of interviews, case studies and literature reviews, and general observations and audits.

Two people were interviewed. The first person to be interviewed was Anna Dikaliotin who, at the beginning of our project period, was the general acting manager of Aussies. There is currently a new manager in place who has just recently been hired. The second person to be interviewed was to be Suzanne Burdett, the general manager of FEDS businesses. However, she referred us to Chris Di Lullo, the vice president of external affairs, and so the second interview took place with him. The interviews were scheduled by phone and by email

The interviews were done face-to-face. This kind of contact with interviewees "enhance(s) the quality of the data" because it limits confusion of questions and can lead to embellishment and useful information. Disadvantages of interviews can include cost, although this does not apply to us as we are not doing interviews on a large scale, and time. This fact did apply to our study as interviews with key informants can take a significant amount of time.

A qualitative approach was taken in the interviews. Because of this, the conversations ran smoothly. As well, this gave the interviewee an opportunity to ask questions and to not be constrained by only yes and no answers. However, there were structured interview questions but time was allotted to add on any thoughts that the interviewer/interviewee may have had during the interview and have wished to add.

Answers to questions were written down. The problem here is that because not every word is written down, responses can get altered and important information may be missed by the interviewer. This can also interrupt the flow of the interview process as the interviewer has to stop and write down the answers. However, in our case it was the most practical interview type because it avoided problems with ethics. As well, the questions that were asked did not require very detailed answers. Therefore, if small pieces of information were missed, this would not drastically affect the assessment.

5.1 Questions:

To formulate our questions, we looked at our research question and determined what we wanted to accomplish with our interviews. We then created specific question in order to address certain aspects of Aussies that we felt were important. For example, questions were asked about energy use and packaging.

The question structure features open-ended questions. This helped us find both general information about Aussies as well as the opinions and willingness of the interviewees to implement more sustainable practices. The limitations of this method are that these types of questions can lead to long discussions, which require lots of time.

According to Palys, face-to-face interviews are "longer and more detailed, tend to seek greater depth of response, and tend to be more open-ended in their construction to allow for phenomenological input from respondents." In other words, by using this format, the interviews have allowed us to get more detailed, informative answers than another type of interview.

During the interview with Anna Dikaliotin, we asked questions about the general day-to-day management of the store. We also asked her about any environmental initiatives that had been taken by Aussies. We asked Chris similar questions as well as what his decision-making powers were. To see a complete transcript of the interviews, look in the Appendix 11.1 and 11.2.

5.2 Information Gathered:

We gathered various types of information. We did a literature review of the background literature that is relevant to our assessment (i.e. assessment methods). As well, we looked at other environmental assessments, specifically those done on campus. For example, we analyzed the assessment done on the Bomber. We also gathered some information on the various products in the store. We found out where they came from, examined their packaging, and discussed more environmentally friendly ways of stocking the store.

Aussies is a convenience store that sells a variety of products. Many of these products are food and drink although they also sell stationary, pharmaceutical products, gifts, cigarettes, postage, etc. Therefore, we decided to analyse six representative products. These were: candy, bulk snacks, pharmaceutical products, stationary, and a gift item, and a change purse. We thought that these products were a good representation of what is on Aussie’s shelves.

As well as doing an overview of Aussie’s products, we did a series of environmental audits on the store itself. We looked at waste and recycling, energy, and the dry cleaning business.

Waste was looked at. Although they may not produce a lot of waste, it is still an important issue. Aussies also gets a lot of recyclables, in terms of packaging, from their products. As well, we needed to know if they practiced recycling methods, and what they recycled.

The energy use at Aussies was one of our main concerns. There is energy used for the lights, and two drink coolers, as well as for air conditioning and heating. We found out how much energy was used for these things. As well, we found out how their energy use could be reduced.

We performed our energy audit on November 14th, 2002. In order to assess how much energy was being used, we recorded the energy usage that was present on many of the electrical appliances. We also tried to figure out how much energy the lights used, and what types of bulbs were in place. Aside from this, we made general observations about the locations and types of appliances being used. For example, we counted how many light fixtures there were in the store, and we noted the location and number of drink refrigerators being used.

The dry cleaning business also presented an interesting environmental issue. We found out where the dry cleaning is sent and how environmentally friendly the business is. We investigated alternative dry cleaning methods that have less of an impact on the environment. We found out which company does the dry cleaning during our interview with Anna Dikaliotin. Once this had been established, we called the company to find out which location it was being taken to. We also found out what kind of dry cleaning processes they used, and if they were environmentally friendly.

6.0 Literature Review:

A General look at Sustainability Auditing of Canadian Businesses:

Brooks, L.J., and D. Nitkin. "Sustainability Auditing and Reporting: The Canadian Experience." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 17, October 1998: pp 1499-1507.

The majority of Canadian businesses do not perform environmental audits. The main reason for this is that it is thought that an environmental audit will not lead to profit. Some companies have undergone an environmental audit. Most of these are done on specific aspects of the business. For example, audits are most frequently performed on waste and energy. However, the environment is becoming a bigger factor for a lot of businesses, especially because of initiatives like ISO 14001. While auditing is voluntary right now, it is growing.

Environmental Audit Methods for energy:

Organization of Eastern Caribbean States. (2001) "Guidelines for Conducting Energy Audits of Administrative, Commercial, and Office Buildings." http://www.oecsnrmu.org/documents/envplan/Energy%20Audit%20Guidelines.pdf.

The methods we used came from guidelines off the website mentioned above. These guidelines addressed the process for conducting an energy audit, including what to look for and what to write down.

Environmental Audit Methods for Waste:

Ontario Ministry of the Environment. (1994). "A Guide to Waste Audits and Reduction Work Plans for Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Sectors." Toronto, Ontario. http://www.ene.gov.on.ca/envision/gp/2480e.pdf.

This website gave us the framework for conducting a waste audit.

Dry Cleaning Practices:

GreenOntario. (2002) "Provincial Stragtegy: Dry Cleaning." Toronto, Ontario.

http://www.greenontario.org/strategy/dryclean.html

We used this website to find information on dry cleaning methods. It gave us information about the chemicals used in dry cleaning as well as more environmentally friendly alternatives.

Importance of Environmental Auditing on Businesses and Auditing Methods:

Beloe, S. and A. Grafe-Buckens. "Auditing and Communicating Business Sustainability." Eco-management and Auditing, Vol. 5: November 1999. pp 101-110.

As time passes, it becomes more evident that businesses need to become more sustainable. Businesses are growing in size and power, and must be held responsible for their environmental behavior. This is why the environmental audit is so important. It creates a framework for responsible environmental and sustainability behavior. It can also allow a business to be examined on economic, organizational and social levels. Through the audit process, businesses can become sustainable in a practical and all-encompassing way.

Some of the environmental audit methods came from this article, including information on waste and product analysis.

7.0 Schedule — Major Events

October 16th, 2002 — Initial observation of Aussies

October 22nd, 2002 — Hand in preliminary project proposal/study design

November 1st, 2002 — Interview with Anna Dikaliotin

November 13th, 14th, and 19th — Waste Audit

November 14th — Energy Audit

November 20th — Interview with Chris Di Lullo

November 22nd — Secondary observation of Aussies, specifically the stockroom

November 28th — Presentation of key findings and recommendations

December 5th — Hand in final report parts A and B

Note that this schedule does not include biweekly meetings, telephone and online correspondence.

8.0 Limitations of Study:

At the time of this study, Aussies was undergoing a change in management and methods of running the store. This caused difficulty when making regular schedules for the audits. For example, the waste audits were to be done at the same times in the day, 6:30pm. However, as this would inconvenience staff, the last waste audit was done in the middle of the day. This did not greatly affect the study since it was found that the items making up the garbage were the same in all three waste audits allowing for a recommendation, drawn from results of all three audits, to be made.

9.0 Results:

9.1 Product Analysis:

Aussies is a store that carries a large variety and number of products. As such, it would be impossible to analyze all of them in the limited amount of time that we had available. Therefore, we chose six products in six different categories that we felt represented the products on the shelves. To represent candy, we used "Nerds" candy. For bulk items, we chose a container of almonds and household needs products, a travel size container of Tylenol. To represent gift items, we chose a small metal and glass candleholder and to represent stationary, we chose a journal. Finally, as a miscellaneous item, we analyzed a change purse.

The first product that we looked at was a 45-gram box of Wonka "Nerds." This candy is made in the United States, therefore must be imported to Waterloo, Canada. However, because it is a major name brand, it is not possible to find a likely alternative. That is to say, there is only one kind of this candy. As well, there are no factories in Canada producing this candy which, again, means it needs to be imported.

The next product we decided to analyze was a plastic container of almonds. M. and L. gourmet Inc., under the brand name "Gourmet Selection", made these almonds. They are made in Canada, in Mississauga area: we were not able to determine the exact location of the factory. The almonds themselves most likely come from out of the country, probably from the United States via Agriculture and Agri-food Canada. The plastic container is recyclable.

The next product that we looked at was a travel size container of Tylenol Extra Strength pain reliever. This product is made in Guelph by McNeil Consumer Products Company. It is packaged in a plastic cylinder, which is then packaged in a plastic shell on a cardboard backing.

Another item we looked at was a candleholder. It was made by CTG Distributors under the brand name "Deco Lite Candles and Accessories." There was no packaging apparent on this product, though there was when it arrived at the store. The candleholder was brought to the store from Richmond Hill, but was originally made in China.

The next item we analyzed was a journal. It was made by Colorbok under the brand name "Claudia Art and Design." Originally, this product is manufactured in China. It arrives in the store from the Colorbok Company, which is located in Michigan.

The last item that we analyzed was a change purse. It was manufactured by Worldfolk Art Importers. We were unable to find out where the purse was imported from, though we know that it was made in Guatemala. It is made of 100% cotton.

9.2 Stockroom Audit:

The Stockroom is located directly opposite the entrance to Aussies. It is a small room containing mostly crates of drinks, as well as other items that are carried by the store. These crates, some containing drinks and other containing chocolate bars, were made of cardboard covered in plastic shrink-wrap, though there were some crates in use that were made of plastic, and were collected and reused by the supplier. We also found that the lights were left on all the time even though there was no one in the room.

9.3 Energy Audit:

There are three general-use computers in space belonging to Aussies. One is located in the office while the other two rest on the main counter and are used in conjunction with the cash register. On the main counter is also a credit card machine, a WATcard machine and a Lotto ticket machine. The computers, card machines and Lotto machine are all left on while Aussies is open.

There are 22 square ceiling lights in the area. One of these lights had 2 bulbs while the other 21 had 4 bulbs. The luminosity did not differ in any of the lights, including the one with only 2 bulbs. A track light fixture is placed near the back of the store just in front of the used clothing section. This fixture has three outlets for light bulbs: two are 90watt bulbs, while the third bulb was not working. Also on the ceiling are five heating and cooling outlets.

There are two fridges in Aussies: one small one, consuming 8.5amps, and one large one, consuming 11.5amps. Drinks are in rows and some of the drinks take up to 10 rows each.

9.4 Waste Audit:

The student-run convenience store has two garbage cans. One is located in the office and the other is behind the counter. There is only one "recycling" box: a brown cardboard box with "Recycling" written on the side which is beside the garbage under the main counter. The garbage can in the office was empty on each occasion an audit was done. The garbage can behind the counter contained mostly paper from receipts and cigarette packaging cartons. The recycling box, we were informed, does not take paper and is barely used. The only item in this box throughout all three audits was a plastic pop bottle. Cardboard packaging boxes are taken out of Aussies throughout the day and are left on the lower level of the SLC just outside the elevator where they are picked up by Plant Operations and recycled.

9.5 Dry Cleaning Audit:

All the clothes dropped off at Aussies for dry cleaning are brought to "Jessop’s Speedy Cleaners." Jessop’s has two locations: one in Waterloo and one in Kitchener. The main location is in Kitchener and all the dry cleaning brought to the Waterloo location is brought to the main location. The Waterloo location only does wet cleaning. Jessop’s uses perchloroethylene, also known as "perc," for their dry cleaning. This chemical is environmentally unfriendly. However, 95% of dry cleaners in Ontario use perc because it is too costly to switch to new "green" methods. Jessop’s has taken some environmental initiatives as they use environmentally friendly soap in all of their wet washing and have invested in new, more efficient machinery.

10.0 Recommendations:

10.1 Product Analysis:

Packaging is a big consideration when thinking about the products in Aussies. Some of the products have more packaging than is necessary. This creates a lot of unnecessary waste. Efforts should be made to inquire about getting products with less packaging; both when the products initially arrive in the store, and when they are displayed on the shelves. For example, the travel size Tylenol bottle does not need to be packaged in the plastic shell with the cardboard backing. Instead, it could be packaged with a simple plastic seal. This way, the cardboard and plastic shell would be unnecessary and the Tylenol would be safe and hygienic.

Another major concern that arose from the product analysis was that many of the products, especially those in the gift area, were imported from places out of the country. This is an environmental concern because the farther away the origin of the product is, the more distance it has to travel to get to the store. This translates to more emissions from gasoline used in transportation as well as any extra transportation packaging. A solution to this problem would be to carry more locally made products. The Canadian Gift and Tableware Association has a list of Canadian manufacturers of gift items on their website, www.cgta.org, which would be a good place to find out where to order Canadian made products.

Many of the food products offered in Aussies do not come from local areas. As well, there are no organic food choices available. This could be remedied by carrying local snack products, and by offering customers some organic choices, preferably from local producers. A trial period could be set up to see how well these items sell.

10.2 Stockroom Audit:

The first recommendation for the stockroom is to turn off lights when the room is not being used. This will conserve energy as well as help to make the bulbs last longer. The staff in charge of ordering drinks and candy should investigate the possibility of ordering the items with less packaging so as to cut down on waste. Another possible way to cut down on waste is to insist that the reusable plastic crates are used for the majority of the drinks. Currently, most of the drinks are packaged in plastic shrink wrap, and placed on a cardboard tray.

10.3 Energy Audit:

The three computers in Aussies are left on throughout the day while the store is open. These can be turned off when not in use to help conserve energy. This can be done with the card machines and Lotto machine as well.

The square ceiling lights should all be replaced with 2 bulbs instead of having four. Compact Florescent light bulbs would help cut down on energy consumption in the square ceiling lights as well as the track light fixture while keeping the luminosity level the same. Some of these bulbs emit as much light as an average 90watt bulb but only consume 11watts of electricity.

It would be possible to have only the larger fridge in Aussies if only there was one kind of drink per row. Instead of having four or five rows of, for example, "Aquafina Water," there would be only one, making room for the other kinds of drinks. The larger fridge could then contain all the varieties of drinks and the smaller fridge would not be needed. The lights in the fridges should also be turned off after hours.

10.4 Waste Audit:

There should be two real blue boxes in Aussies. These would be recognized by students and staff and perhaps encourage their use. A plastic/glass/tin recycling bin should be accessible for students and staff, while a recycling bin behind counter is used exclusively for paper by staff. However, as with the stockroom audit recommendations, efforts should be made to purchase products with less packaging so as to reduce waste from the source.

10.5 Dry Cleaning Audit:

Despite thorough research, we could not find a dry cleaner within a reasonable distance from the campus that does not use perchloroethylene. Therefore a dry cleaner that uses "perc" cannot be avoided. We suggest finding a dry cleaner closer to campus that does all its dry cleaning on site. This will cut down greenhouse gas emissions caused by the transportation of the clothes to a Kitchener location as is done now with Jessop’s.

10.6 Other Recommendations:

Many of the above recommendations cannot be put into action without the cooperation of the staff at Aussies. The staff have control over the machinery and can turn it off when it is not in use. The same applies for the lights in the store.

The Federation of Students may also wish to take initiative in environmental awareness by forming a partnership with Natural Resources Canada. "The CANMET Energy Technology Center (CETC), through Natural Resources Canada, works with universities to develop and deploy leading-edge technologies in the areas of residential, commercial and industrial energy efficiency and alternative, renewable and transportation technologies."

11.0 Conclusion:

The mandate of Watgreen/Greening the campus is to transform the University of Waterloo into "a showcase of sustainability." It aims to increase sustainability and environmental awareness on campus, and to do so in a cost efficient way. It also seeks to make the University an example for others in Canada and around the world.

The environmental assessment that we have performed on Aussies follows this mandate. If the recommendations are followed up on by the Federation of Students, Aussies will become more sustainable. It would not cost much money to implement most of the recommendations we have made, and in some cases, could save the university money especially in the area of energy use. Our assessment can act as a guideline for other students and business owners who want to increase sustainability in their businesses and on campus. They can also look at some of the recommendations that we have made, and apply them to their own organizations.

In conclusion, we believe that the recommendations we have made are not that difficult to implement. We expect that not all the recommendations will be acted upon right away. Hopefully though, most of them will be put into practice in the near future.

12.0 Appendices:

12.1 Interview A

Interview Concerning the Environmental Assessment of Aussies

Person Interviewed: Anna Dikaliotin, General Manager of Aussies

Date: November 1st, 2002

Location: Aussies (office)

Interviewer: Sabrina Bowman

1. What kind of light bulbs do you use? Who replaces them? Where do they come from?

- plant operations takes care of the light bulbs

2. When are the lights on (hours/day)?

- The lights are turned on when the store is opened and turned off when it is closed

3. What is the energy use of the drink coolers? Do they need to be left on 24 hours a day?

- Don’t know the energy use of the drink coolers, but the do need to be left on 24 hours a day because they contain milk.

4. When is the air conditioning on? What is the energy use of the air conditioning unit, and where is it located?

- Plant operations takes care of this — don’t know where it is located.

5. When is the heating on? What is the energy use of the heating and where is it located?

- same as above

6. Are there any other appliances used in Aussies? If so, what are their energy ratings and how long are they left on for?

- computers in office and front terminals

- monitors are turned off after closing, but the system is left on.

7. Can we get your permission for a one-week waste audit?

- yes, but the garbage is taken out every night (store closes at 7:30)

8. Have efforts been made to reduce packaging? Is it a consideration when placing orders for products?

- no efforts this year, but in previous years, there have been changes made

- companies ship products in their own crates or in recycled boxes

- packaging isn’t a consideration when ordering products

9. Is there a recycling program in place? Is it monitored and enforced?

- yes...large items go outside, small recycling box inside (self-monitored)

10. Where does the waste go once it leaves Aussies?

-Plant operations

11. Where is the dry cleaning done?

- Jessops-he picks it up — several locations

12. Does the dry cleaner practice "environmentally conscious" cleaning methods?

- don’t know

13. Is Aussies on contract with the dry cleaner?

- don’t know

14. Are products ordered on contract?

- don’t think so

15. Have any environmental initiatives been taken by Aussies?

- Not really, but community based products are in store

- switched from far away products to local products

- stopped carrying a product of candles; is working to get a local supplier.

12.2 Interview B

Interview Concerning the Environmental Assessment of Aussies

Person Interviewed: Chris Di Lullo, FEDS Vice President of Administration and Finance

Date: November 20, 2002

Location: Chris’s Office, FEDS Office

Interviewer: Sabrina Bowman

1. What is your role in Aussies?

- responsible for overseeing the operation of FEDS businesses. This is done jointly with Suzanne Burdette. He meets with all the managers once a week, and oversees general management. He "tries to stay away from micromanagement." He is the catalyst for change in FEDS businesses. He also works on projects to improve the businesses.

2. Who else is involved in the decision-making processes of Aussies?

- the staff, Suzanne, Brenda (President — I don’t know her last name). Also, there is a board of directors, but they are only involved in major contracts.

3. Was there any follow-up to the Bomber environmental assessment?

There were some things implemented:

- beer bottle caps were recycled by sending them with bottles back to the beer store.

- more care was taken with recycling

- more water and energy conservation; everything turned off at the end of the night, including videogames, lights, etc.

- recycling of soft plastic (beer) cups improved

4. Where does the garbage and recycling go once it leaves Aussies?

- garbage and recycling gets taken out to the loading dock.

5. Are products ordered on contract?

No, but products are ordered from a distributor:

- Courtneys — junk food, pop

- Flanagans — Food products

6. Have any environmental initiatives been taken by Aussies?

- recently, electricity use is more careful.

- computers were left on-are now being shut down, though only about half the staff do it.

7. What comes in cardboard to the store?

- majority of products come in cardboard

- drinks, with the exception of bottled pop, come in carboard boxes.

12.3 Product Analysis

Candy: Nerds, 45gr, cardboard box

Brand Name: Wonka

Company: Nestle S.A. Vevey-Switzerland

Made in: United States

Bulk: Almonds, 130gr plastic container

Brand Name: Gourmet Selection

Company: M and L Gourmet

Made in: Canada

Pharmaceutical Product: Travel sized Tylenol, plastic cylindrical container encased in plastic shell with cardboard backing.

Brand Name: Tylenol

Company: McNeil Consumer Products Company

Made in: Guelph

Gift Item: Candleholder, no packaging evident

Brand Name: Deco Lite Candles and Accessories

Company: CTG Distributors

Made in: China (imported from Richmond Hill

Stationary: Journal, no packaging evident

Brand Name: Claudia Art and Design

Company: Colorbok

Made in: China (imported from Dexter, Michigan)

Miscellaneous Item: Change Purse, no packaging evident

Company: Worldfolk Art Importers

Made in: Guatamala

12.4 Energy Audit

Date: November 14, 2002

Office:

- 1 computer and 1 monitor (AC100, 240V 60/50Hz — average)

- 2 square light fixtures (4 bulbs in one, 2 in the other — same luminosity)

Store:

- 2 fridges:

- "Beverage Air" — 8.5amps (small, closer to cash counter)

- "QBD Cooling Systems Inc." — 11.5amps (bigger, closer to back)

- 2 fluorescent bulbs, 40W each

- Koss Stereo (small, CD, no tape) and speakers

- Credit Card machine, WATcard machine, and Lotto machine (120V, 60Hz each)

- 20 square ceiling lights (4 fluorescent bulbs in each)

- track light with 3 spots (2 working — 90W each, one not working)

- 5 ceiling heating and cooling outlets: one at back by clothing, in middle, in alcove, in front of fridges, and one in back room

- 3 ceiling panels missing

- TV (not on)

- 2 computers on main counter: one Dell (monitor and CPU) and one Compaq (monitor) and Pentium II (CPU) — both average energy comsumption

Stock room:

- 4 fluorescent lights (on but no one in room)

12.5 Waste Audits

Date: November 13, 2002

Time: 6:30-7:00 p.m

Person Responsible: Sabrina Bowman

Where is the garbage can located?

- at the front of the store, behind the cash register counter.

- there is also one in the office

Where is the recycling bin located?

- same as above

- no recycling bin in the office.

Are there any recyclables in the garbage can?

- paper (receipt tapes, coin containers)

- this makes up about one third of the content

What is in the recycling box?

- 2 plastic bottles and one tin can

- this box doesn’t take paper

What is in the office garbage can?

- nothing, it is empty

Other observations:

- cardboard is taken out throughout the day, so it was not present in the waste

- some plastic cutlery was found in the garbage can

- about a quarter of the garbage was cigarette cartons (I found 10 cartons)

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Date: November 14, 2002

Time: 6:30-7:00pm

Person Responsible: Emily Smit

How much waste is in the garbage can (black garbage bags)?

- full, but garbage is not compacted

Are there any recyclables in the garbage?

- lots of paper from receipts and cigarette packaging (recyclables account for approximately 80% of garbage)

What is in the recycling box?

- one newspaper

- cardboard boxes taken out of Aussies throughout the day: stack of cardboard boxes from Aussies outside the elevator on the lower level of the SLC

What is in the office garbage can?

- nothing, it is empty

Other Observations (i.e: what is in the garbage? Paper? How much? Anything else of note)

- "Recycling" box is not a real Blue Box, it is a cardboard box with "recycling" written on the side

- perhaps this is why it is not being used very much?

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Date: November 20, 2002

Time: 1:30-2:00pm

Person Responsible: Emily Smit

How much waste is in the garbage can (black garbage bags)?

- half full

Are there any recyclables in the garbage?

- paper again from receipts

- two plastic pop bottles

What is in the recycling box?

- plastic candy container

- one plastic pop bottle

What is in the office garbage can?

- nothing

Other Observations (i.e: what is in the garbage? Paper? How much? Anything else of note)

- staff made "recycling box" slightly more recognized, but behind counter where students cannot access it

12.6 Dry Cleaning Audit

Jessop’s Speedy Cleaners Phone Interview

Waterloo 886 — 3500

Date: November 20, 2002

Time: 3:30pm

Person Responsible: Emily Smit

Do you do provide the dry cleaning service for the University of Waterloo through Aussies?

Yes

Where are you located?

2 locations: Waterloo and Kitchener. All dry cleaning goes to the Kitchener location at Ontario St. and Duke St.

How do the clothes get from Aussies to your location?

The owner of Jessop’s (David Ballak) comes and picks them up.

Do you use perchloroethylene (aka. perc) in your methods of dry cleaning?

Yes

- is the staff who works with perc trained? Certified?

Yes, the use of perc is regulated by the government therefore Jessop’s must have certified staff. Sludge is taken away by health officials.

- have you considered switching to an alternative method? Why/why not?

No, there isn’t enough information on alternative methods. It is also too costly to switch.

- have you taken any environmental initiatives in you practices?

Yes. Jessop’s uses environmentally friendly soap in all of their wet cleaning. The business has also recently purchased new machinery that is more efficient.

13.0 References:

Merriam-Webster. 2002. http://www.m-w.com/cgi-bin/dictionary.

Sierra Youth Coalition. 2002. Initiatives. http://www.sierrayouthcoalition.org/en_CA/SusCamp/inititiative.htm.

Murphy, S. 2001. ERS 100 Course Reader. Faculty of Environmental Studies, University of Waterloo. p. 38.

Palys, T. 1997. Research Decisions: Quantitative and Qualitative Perspectives. Harcourt Canada Inc. Toronto, Canada. p. 154.

Ibid p. 156.

Ibid p.165.

Ibid p. 155.

Agriculture and Agri-food Canada. 2002. Imports from the United States: Canada’s Agri-food. http://ats-sea.agr.ca/stats/trade_data/UnitedStates_m09.pdf.

Colobok. 2002. All About Us. http://www.colorbok.com/Company/Companybody.html.

Green Ontario Provincial Strategies. nd. Dry Cleaning. http://www.greenontario.org/strategy/dryclean.html.

 

Natural Resources Canada. 2001. CETC: Doing Business with Us. http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/es/etb/cetc/cetc01/htmldocs/funding_programs_e.html.

 

 

WATgreen. 2002. Vision Statement. http://www.adm.uwaterloo.ca/infowast/watgreen/.