Bike Lanes to Campus

Final Report

ERS 285




Prepared by: Becky Bowman

Shawna Cook

Sara Thompson

Paul Wisken

Date: July 20, 2000

Table of Contents

Executive Summary ………………………………………….. 1

Introduction …………………………………………………... 2

Background Information ……………………………………… 3

Research Objective ……………………………………………. 5

Significance …………………………………………………… 5

Systems Diagram ……………………………………………… 7

Methods ……………………………………………………….. 8

Research Results ………………………………………………. 9

Limitations ……………………………………………………. 11

Recommendations …………………………………………….. 15

Conclusions …………………………………………………… 18

Bibliography ………………………………………………….. 19


Appendix A — Survey (As handed out to classes) ……. 21

Appendix B — Survey (Correct Questions) …………… 23

Appendix C — Survey Results ………………………… 24

Appendix D — Group Tasks …………………………... 27

Appendix E — Engineering Committee Report ……….. 28

Preliminary Study Design …………………………………….. 31



Executive Summary

The following report examines the attitudes of students at the University of Waterloo towards biking to campus. In this study a survey was conducted to examine the opinions of students from the University of Waterloo about biking and bike lanes. The survey type used was a disproportional stratified random sample. This allowed an overall view of students’ opinions towards bike lanes to campus to be obtained.

Once the survey was given ethical clearance, 240 students were surveyed, 40 from each of the six faculties at the University of Waterloo. These results were compiled into an Access Database, so that they could be easily analyzed.

Findings confirmed our research question regarding whether bike lanes leading to campus would encourage people to bike. The majority of students were in support of bike lanes and asserted that lanes would encourage them to cycle to campus. Another main concern of the students addressed in our findings was the many security issues regarding bikes.

In completing this study there were many limitations revealed. These are examined extensively in the report. The main limitations are: time constraints for the completion of the study, the season the study was conducted in, the limitation of the opinions achieved and the restraint of preparation time. Due to the extensive limitations our results are not completely reliable as a valid source. They do, however give an overview of student opinions regarding bike lanes to the University’s campus.



Cycling is an increasingly popular mode of transportation. Clubs and associations are forming around bicycling and a number of individuals are using bikes as a major form of transportation or for recreational and exercise purposes. This interest in bicycling stems from peoples’ concerns for physical fitness in an increasingly sedentary lifestyle, and out of concern about the health of our environment. A particular concern is the negative effects car exhaust is having on air quality. Less time constraints are placed on cyclists compared to public transit users, and are a more time efficient practice than walking. In North American society, the use of bikes as a primary means of transportation is often dismissed. While cyclists can legally use almost all roads, the conditions for travel discourage cycling. These constraining conditions include poor lighting, poor road maintenance, and most importantly, the sharing of lanes with cars and other vehicles where the sharing of lanes is not feasible.

Many cyclists in the Kitchener-Waterloo region do not feel safe riding on the major roads. These cyclists often choose to ride on the sidewalks, which are designated for pedestrians. This practice is not only highly frustrating, but it becomes a safety concern for pedestrians and cyclists. This routine poses a concern for cyclist safety when riding with motorists and pedestrians. Pedestrians and drivers of vehicles have space designated specifically for them; cyclists rarely have any lanes or pathways specified for bicycling. Existing lanes are usually disconnected networks that fail to create an efficient, integrated system for travel through the community despite the decreased space cyclists occupy. Transportation officials and planners are aware of the increasing need to develop roads but rarely consider a transportation system that includes cycling.

We hope that our project will add to a growing body of information supporting bicycling in the city environment and that bike lanes will eventually become a main part of the region’s road systems. Our project explores whether bike lanes leading to campus will encourage students to bike more frequently, thus reducing their dependency upon cars and other motor vehicles. We hope to discover how the student population feels about these issues, and what suggestions they recommend. Not only would the increase of bike lanes within the city to the University of Waterloo campus benefit the students of UW, but these bike lanes would also prove to be beneficial to the Kitchener-Waterloo community.


Background Information

A number of projects completed by the University of Waterloo have studied methods and patterns of transportation, specifically bicycling, by the university community. In 1991 Daniels et al. studied the methods of transportation that students used, where they live in Kitchener-Waterloo, and what other methods of transportation are available. The group found that only 17% of students bike while 32% drive. In 1994, another ERS 285 study, conducted by Beasley et al., studied the student attitudes towards biking and the concerns about cycling that people held. Among other recommendations, the research group called for an improved system of bike lanes leading to campus and made suggestions as to what a new system should include such as lighting, signage, cleared lanes, and which roads to implement bike lanes on. A report titled Cycling at UW (Russel et al., 1997) found that 36% of students in the University bike to school sometimes/often/or always in the summer. It also found that 58% of the survey respondents wanted bike lanes off campus, saying it would most likely encourage them to bike to school. The report recommended a further study on bike lanes leading to campus.

An extensive study was recently completed by the Graduate Planning students at the University of Waterloo. Their report, titled Transportation Demand Management Assessment of the University of Waterloo community (University of Waterloo, 2000), outlines the need for Transportation Demand Management (TDM) for the University and the Region of Waterloo. It studied parking, the public transit system, land use, on and off campus housing, and telecommuting to define the current and forecasted problems in each area. The report then outlined strategies to improve each aspect. Of particular note is the researchers’ statement that "It does not make sense to implement only parts — say, the easiest or the cheapest components — because goals will not be achieved…all the components have to work together." (University of Waterloo, 2000). They also called for consensus building and a need for "champions" from all sectors to implement the needed, but complicated and extensive changes in the Region’s transportation system. Among the researchers’ long-term recommendations is "improved links between the university and community that will promote an increase in travel to the university by bicycle" (University of Waterloo, 2000). They note that there is potential to increase paths and lanes in strategic areas.

Other universities are involved in creating a transportation system that encourages members to bicycle. Washington University, Wisconsin-Madison University, and the University of Minnesota-Minneapolis are all involved in creating better bicycle routes and end-of-trip facilities such as showers and storage facilities (University of Waterloo, 2000). As well, Cornell University has a program named "Cornell Cycles" which includes plans "to integrate bike lanes into roadway improvements" (University of Waterloo, 2000). The University of British Columbia serves as another example of a school actively pursuing the integration of bike lanes and networks into the surrounding communities’ transportation system.

The implementation of bike lanes into the Region’s transportation network rests on the decisions of the regional municipal government. As such it is important to investigate their opinions and actions towards bike lanes in our area. The Region has various projects connected to cycling, primarily a Regional Cycling Advisory Committee (RCAC). This committee investigates the many different aspects of cycling, as well as producing various reports on cycling in the region.

The purpose of the Regional Cycling Policy Master Plan is to establish the basic structure of a cycling network for the Region of Waterloo. The advisory committee has recommended "how [the Master Plan] structure can be implemented over the next 50 years through policies, projects and partnerships." A system of over 450-km of both on and off-road routes is outlined in this report (Waterloo Regional Cycling Advisory Committee, 1995).

In preparing the Region’s transportation master plan a public opinion survey was conducted in 1997 by the Angus Reid Group. The poll investigated possible improvements to the transportation system. Of this study an astounding 84% supported expanding existing bicycle path networks. When asked about spending tax dollars, 69% favoured the construction of bike paths. (Region of Waterloo, 1997).

A recent recommendation made on October 8, 1997 was that "the Regional Municipality of Waterloo consider the provision of bike lanes on University Avenue between Westmount Road and King Street, in conjunction with the resurfacing/reconstruction of this section of road" (Regional Municipality of Waterloo Engineering Committee Report, Appendix E). This report outlined the RCAC recommendation that bike lanes be made a priority, "especially between the two universities in Waterloo, on University Avenue." (Ibid, Appendix E). The resurfacing of these roads is planned to occur in the year 2001. At the September 15, 1997 meeting "the committee made a resolution about supporting lanes [on University Ave]" (Woodhall, 2000).

Research Objective

This study was designed to further the research on bike lanes leading to campus. A number of studies have recommended an improved network for cyclists leading to the University of Waterloo, and within the Region as a whole. We wanted to see if bike lanes would encourage students to bike to campus. To determine what would encourage cycling, we surveyed student perceptions of biking and bike lanes; if they would be more likely to bike to school if bike lanes were present, what routes they currently take to get to school and if they would use bike lanes constructed along these routes. We updated information on current modes of transportation to campus and the reasons why some students do not bike.


Air quality is a growing concern within Ontario. The Ontario Medical Association (OMA) announced July 5, 2000 that "air pollution is a public health crisis in Ontario" (Ontario Clean Air Alliance, 2000). The association warned that air pollution causes 1,800 premature deaths each year and causes others to suffer asthma, bronchitis and other respiratory diseases. The OMA has estimated that it costs the province about $1 billion in health costs and loss of employee hours annually. Kitchener-Waterloo has one of the worst air quality readings in North America.

Car emissions are a primary contributor to smog. In Ontario, road vehicles produce 22% of the ozone in our air (Ontario Ministry of Environment, 2000). Ozone is one of the key components of smog and is formed from the photochemical reactions between NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). 31% of VOCs come from the transportation sector and 67% of NOx from transportation sector (42% specifically from road vehicles). Also, 50% of CO comes from vehicles.

Bicycling has a number of other benefits aside from the indirect reduction of air emissions. Cycling is an excellent form of exercise resulting in healthier bodies and potentially reduces stress load of individuals. This stress load may be further reduced as cyclists avoid the stress of road congestion. Furthermore, it is fast but not overly strenuous. A transportation system that focuses on bicycles will require less land to be allocated to large roads and parking lots. Increased cycling will also benefit individuals who do not possess a driver’s license. Cycling can reduce the cost of transportation for the user because bicycles are less expensive to purchase, repair and insure than automobiles. A cyclist is also unrestrained by bus schedules. Finally, accidents occur more frequently among drivers than cyclists.

Our project will research bike paths, transportation methods and opinions of the University of Waterloo student community. Our project will contribute to the understanding of the Region of Waterloo’s Cycling Policy Master Plan. A reassessment of this Plan is currently underway as it has been 5 years since the initial implementation.



Systems Diagram


The implementation of bike lanes into the Region’s transportation system and, particularly, leading to the University of Waterloo campus requires the input of many actors. The views of the University faculty, staff and students need to be understood, as well as where they live and the routes they are most likely to take to campus. The opinions of the local community, such as: whether they want roads widened; if they would use bike lanes; and if they would support such an initiative, are required. The University decision-makers should also be consulted. Finally, the Region of Waterloo will be involved, as they set the guidelines for transportation design and are the key decision-makers. With the input and support of these four actor groups the political-will can be established to create the bike lanes. Also needed is the technical feasibility and resources such as funding, available workforce, knowledge, and land resources.

With the creation of bike lanes leading to campus, many benefits to the Waterloo community will be apparent. Less air pollution, a healthier environment and healthier people will be the most obvious benefits to the community.




To gain a broad range of ideas and opinions of UW students with regards to bike lanes, we conducted a survey (Appendix A). This project received ethics clearance from the Office of Research Ethics. Using a disproportional stratified random sampling method the University’s student body was divided into six groups based on faculty. The chosen faculties were Applied Health Studies, Arts, Engineering, Environmental Studies, Math and Computer Science, and Science. The Faculty of Independent Studies was omitted as students in this faculty often take courses within the Faculty of the Arts. One class from each faculty was surveyed. We used a random selection process to select classes to survey that was obtained from a course listing. The only restriction placed on the selection process was that each class had to have at least 40 students enrolled. A disproportional sampling method was chosen because we did not have access to the number of students enrolled in each faculty. We determined that 40 students from each faculty would provide an adequate number or responses. The final sampling size was 240 students. After obtaining permission from the class professors, students were given approximately ten minutes to complete the survey. The group intended to portray themselves simply as undergraduate students conducting a research project, without going into specifics about the purpose of the study or the faculty that the survey was being conducted under. In compiling the data from the surveys, Microsoft Access was used. This is a program in which databases can be created and analyzed. A form similar to the survey distributed to the students was created in order to ease the data entry process. This form was then linked directly to the database so that all of the information was available in one table and could be easily analyzed.

Research Results

The survey established trends regarding student’s attitudes towards biking to campus. In the survey questions were asked that were designed to extract peoples concerns, fears and attitudes towards biking and bike lanes. Many of these trends in student responses corresponded with the previously anticipated results. Other results were quite surprising. Results from our survey are examined below, while the validity of the results is discussed in the limitations section.

One of the first questions asked was what modes of transportation the students took to get to campus. The following chart shows the results of the primary mode of transportation used by students. The three primary modes were walking (46.7%), biking (29.6%) and driving (21.7%). Of the 240 surveyed only 2 used public transit and 1 person rollerbladed as their most frequent way to campus.

Of the 240 respondents, 67% (or 162 people) owned a bike. The comfort levels for people biking to school were generally high. Most students felt comfortable biking. Although many responded that they were comfortable biking, a lot of respondents also made comments in response to this question. The most common responses were about inadequate road conditions, poor driving skills of motorists and buses driving too close to cyclists. The following chart displays the comfort levels of the respondents.

Interestingly, 78% of respondents felt comfortable or very comfortable biking to campus and 76.8% felt somewhat comfortable, comfortable, or very comfortable biking to school. However, 88.4% of respondents felt comfortable biking on roads with bike lanes. This either suggests that more students would feel comfortable biking to school if there were lanes or that there is something else making students uncomfortable biking to school.

The remaining questions began to examine bike lanes specifically. When asked if they would bike more if there were bike lanes, 63% said yes. (Please note: 7% did not respond to this question). Another similar question was whether lanes would encourage them to bike. In response to this question, 53% said that bike lanes would encourage them to bike.

To ensure that the project was valid and justifiable, a question was asked to determine what would encourage students to bike more frequently to school. These findings corresponded with the beliefs of the group that bike lanes are important, and would encourage biking. Six possible initiatives (plus an option for participants to write in other initiatives) were listed asking what would encourage students to bike more.

In looking at question six, regarding initiatives that would encourage biking, students were asked to indicate which initiatives would encourage them to bike and rank them in order of importance. In analyzing this question, each student’s top three responses were taken and compiled in order to rank the top four initiatives. The number of total responses for each initiative were compiled and expressed as a percentage of the total number of responses for the top three initiatives. The top four initiatives are as follows: bike lanes leading to campus (36%), more secure bike storage facilities (21%), bike lanes on campus (20%) and more bike racks (16%).

One of the more interesting responses was the issue of bicycle theft. This was an issue not considered by the research team. A large number of students responded that they did not bike as a result of concerns over theft or damage to their bike. There were five people who said that their bike has been stolen and an additional nine that addressed concern over theft or damage. The issue of security on campus seems to be another important issue that should be addressed.




Research Method

A survey method was chosen with an understanding of some of the inherent strengths and weaknesses this method entails. The following is a brief chart of the strengths and weaknesses of conducting a survey in a classroom setting (adapted from Table 8.1Palys, page 148).




- structured question for easy data analysis

- privacy not guaranteed within the classroom setting

- high response rate

- participants influenced by vocal respondents

- useful in the University setting

- must use appropriate vocabulary to avoid confusion

- anonymous procedure, students are aware (it is highly evident that) surveys remain confidential

- we (the surveyors) are non-verbal throughout the process, there is no discussion of students’ feelings (restricted to paper)

- inexpensive

- unable to clarify questions if they arise


In addition to the above weaknesses of a survey, limitations inherent to the research method have also been identified.

A disproportional stratified random sampling method was used to conduct this study. This type of method allowed the research team to survey a set number of 40 students from each faculty. This was not a representative sample. By using this set number, students in the Faculty of Engineering, for example, may not be proportionally represented as well as students from the Faculty of Environmental Studies. This is as a result of the difference in the number of students enrolled in each faculty.

If bike lanes are to be implemented on the main routes to campus, students from Wilfrid Laurier University (WLU) and the faculty and staff from both schools should also be surveyed. WLU and the University of Waterloo are very close in proximity and both schools could benefit from increased bike lanes. Unfortunately in this study, WLU students were not surveyed, predominantly as a result of the limited amount of time available for this study and because few WLU students attend school during the spring and summer months.

Time constraints also limited our sampling frame to students. As a result the faculty and staff of the University were not included. As a large population, and one that is far more stable and long-term than the student population, we recognize that the input of the faculty and staff would be beneficial to understanding the use of bike lanes and opinions towards cycling, bike lanes, and their ideal locations.

Another limitation is the reliability of the answers received through the surveys. A small number of students did not seem to take the surveys seriously. Some of these surveys were discarded, but with some, it was hard to determine whether the answers were an honest opinion. The reliability and validity of the survey answers were often difficult to determine.

Survey questions ask for specific knowledge and these questions undoubtedly reflect the researchers’ biases, no matter how hard this is avoided. The wording of surveys may suggest answers to the respondents. As a result the true opinions of respondents are not necessarily obtained. Further to this, opinions and facts are limited to those that answer the survey questions. While a comment section was included in the survey, people rarely fill these out. As such, views that were not addressed through the survey questions were not communicated.

The professors may have inadvertently influenced the opinions of the students by stating that the research group was from Environment and Resource Studies. The professors did not realize that they might have been influencing the reactivity of the students in introducing the survey and us as researchers. It was the intention of the research team to limit reactivity by not indicating that Environment and Resource Studies students were conducting the surveys. By knowing this, students may potentially give different answers than they otherwise would have. Unfortunately, before the research team gave their preliminary speech many of the professors had already introduced the researchers as, "a group of Environment and Resource Studies students conducting a survey on the use of bike lanes to campus". We further attempted to limit reactivity by omitting a survey title that indicated that bikes were the primary focus of the study. It was hoped that omitting this information would encourage students to answer the survey honestly. The professors gave away both of these pieces of information without being aware of the attempts of the research team to try to limit reactivity.



Research Limitations


The time available to complete this study was a major limitation. The ethics clearance process posed further time limitations. This was a very time consuming process that, in many ways, determined when the surveying process could begin. Final ethics clearance was not granted until late in the term, which left a very brief time period to complete the surveying process.

The difficulties in contacting professors to gain permission to survey their classes and to arrange times to complete the survey also limited the results of this study. In many of the classes, the number of students who completed the surveys was not as high as anticipated. The time available for surveying made it very difficult to survey a second class within the same faculty to complement the first class chosen.

The surveys were conducted during the spring term. This is a major limiting factor to the results of this survey. During the nicer weather, students may be inclined to ride their bikes to school more frequently. This factor would influence the answers to certain questions on the survey. Another limitation to surveying during the spring term is the smaller selection of classes available. Fewer students attend school during the spring semester, limiting the number of classes available. This could affect how representative the survey was. During the summer term there is far more available housing close to the university. The increased proximity to campus would influence the modes of transportation used and the needs identified by students.

Question #2 asked what mode of transportation was used most often to get to campus, but failed to list driving as an option. This showed a slight bias and could have slanted our results. However, there was a space titled "other" in which respondents could, and often did, indicate the use of a car.

After surveying a couple classes, it was discovered that some questions were not particularly clear. Time restrictions limited the research team’s ability to conduct a test survey and arrange to survey new classes with an improved survey. Appendix B details the improved questions. Question #3- the amount of time respondents spend commuting to campus- was unclear in regards to what specific mode of transportation respondents were referring to. The question was improved to specify the length of time it takes to get to campus using their primary mode of transportation. Question #6, asked respondents to indicate which initiatives would most encourage them to bike and to rank them in order of importance, was found to be slightly confusing to respondents. This was improved by asking respondents to only rank those that apply to them.

Three questions in the survey were determined to be of little value. These were: question #1- where students generally lived, question #9- which route people take to school, and question #10- which roads people would most like to see bike lanes constructed on. These questions were determined to be invalid due to the fact that they were often left unanswered or only partially completed.

To find out where students live it would have been more practical to obtain student postal codes through the Registrar’s Office, as the Graduate Planning Students did in the past. This information could have easily been entered into a Geographical Information System program and mapped to visually demonstrate where students lived off-campus. The initial method used, which asked students where the nearest intersection to which they lived was and then mapping this information, was too time consuming and inaccurate to be worthwhile. By using similar methods to that of the Graduate Planning Students, the postal codes of all students would have been used rather than just the student’s surveyed, thus giving more useful results.

In conducting research for this project, it would also have been useful to contact Dave Banks, the engineer in charge of implementing bike lanes for the Region of Waterloo. Contact was made with the Transportation Demand Management Planner, JoAnn Woodhall, however more detailed information could not be obtained. Banks was on vacation and could not be reached in time for to get the needed information.



Future Projects

Implementing bike lanes on the main routes to campus is a very important step to improving air quality within the Region of Waterloo. This research team has come up with a variety of recommendations that may help this ideal become a reality. Similar projects would first need to take place to ensure that the information received throughout this project is valid. This could be done through student projects or by other parties commissioned by the University of Waterloo or the Region of Waterloo. It would be beneficial if these studies are conducted at times when a larger number of students are attending the University. These studies should survey students in order to understand the motivations of people who do bike, and determine whether or not bike lanes on the main routes to campus would increase biking.

Education is a very important process when any new idea is implemented. It would be beneficial for students to study the possible use of signage or other methods of advertising to inform drivers, cyclists and other members of the public about the bike lanes and encourage their use.

The process of conducting surveys was a new experience for the members of the research team. Along the way, it was discovered that many things could have been done differently to achieve better results and a more representative sample. The survey process was a learning experience that has taught the group what to do, and what not to do for future projects involving surveying and research of the type emphasized in ERS 285.

One of the most important lessons learned, and that should be passed on, is that it is very difficult to present an unbiased survey when environmental issues are the primary focus. This is not to say that the elimination or reduction of bias is impossible, it just requires great attention and a lot of extensive editing. Future researchers, particularly those researching bike lanes to campus, should be careful not to lead the participants in their answers by solely focusing on cycling.

Researchers should also ensure that the next survey containing a similar focus should differentiate between the methods of transportation during different seasons. Questions should be asked such as:

How do you get to campus during: The spring term

The fall term

The winter term

These types of questions would eliminate the need to survey during each term. Limiting reactivity requires that future researchers speak with the professors of the classes to be surveyed in advance of the surveying process. Informing the professors of the need to eliminate bias by omitting information such as the faculty name, and the focus of the project, would ensure that a more representative sample could be obtained.

The chosen survey method is perhaps the most important aspect contributing to how representative the survey is. It is advised that future students or groups studying the possibility of increasing bike use should, if they plan to survey each faculty, use proportional stratified random sampling techniques. This will allow the same sampling ratio to be used within each faculty (Palys, 1997). This technique will make sure that all of the faculties are represented appropriate to the number of students within them.

Furthermore, we suggest people study the feasibility of programs that would encourage people to bicycle such as bicycle safety programs and education programs. As well, methods of improving security for bikes while on campus should be studied and the feasibility of these methods. This is a result of the number of people who expressed concern over bike theft and vandalism. We also strongly recommend that the views on bike lanes held by the staff and faculty of the University of Waterloo as well as the Wilfrid Laurier University community be examined.




Cars are a major cause of air pollution in urban environments. Unfortunately, city planners have structured our cities to both encourage and force people to choose automobiles as their primary mode of transportation. Alternative modes of transportation such as pubic transit and bicycles are less integrated into transportation systems. The Region of Waterloo is currently implementing changes that will improve the public transit system and create a bicycle network throughout the Region. This network will hopefully encourage people to choose alternative modes of transportation to automobiles, thus relieving congestion, road maintenance, and air pollution.

Bike lanes and paths are important initiatives towards encouraging citizens to cycle. Students at the University of Waterloo are major commuters within the Region. We found that a large number of students are in support of the construction of bike lanes to campus. As the major commuter destination in the city, encouraging students, staff, and faculty of the University to cycle to campus would go a long ways towards reducing automobile use. Bike lanes were found to be the one initiative that would most encourage students to cycle and that would relieve some of their current discomfort using this mode of transportation. Of course, a successful sustainable transportation system involves a number of elements, and bike lanes are just one needed addition to the city. Bike lanes would be a beneficial addition to the city from a health, efficiency, and sustainable perspective.



Beasley, B., S. Gibbon, D. McKay, K. Papple, L. Simard and A. Walkley. 1994. Bikeways. Paper for ERS 285. Waterloo: WATGreen, University of Waterloo.

Daniels, H., E. Jarritsma and Y. Leicht. 1991. Tarnsportation to and from Campus. Paper for ERS 285. Waterloo: WATGreen, University of Waterloo.

Ontario Clean Air Alliance. July 2000. {Online} Available: [July 8, 2000]

Ontario Ministry of the Environment. July 2000. {Online}Available: [July 8, 2000]

Region of Waterloo (1997). Transportation Master Plan, Survey Results. Available: [May 27, 2000].

Russel, A., R. Houlihan, M. Dunning, D. Ewing, and J. Whitfield. 1997. Cycling at UW. Paper for ERS 285. Waterloo: WATGREEN, University of Waterloo. Available:

University of Waterloo: Graduate Planning Students. 2000. A Transportation Demand Management Assessment of the University of Waterloo community. Available: [July 3, 2000].

Waterloo Regional Cycling Advisory Committee (1995). Regional Cycling Policy Master Plan. [Online] Available: [May 27, 2000]






















Appendix A

Survey (as handed out to classes)


1. What is the closest intersection to which you live?

  1. How do you get to campus?

Mode Days/Week

other __________ __________

3. How many minutes (approx.) does it take for you to get to get to campus?

ÿ <5 ÿ 6-10 ÿ 11-15 ÿ 16-20 ÿ 21-25 ÿ 26-30 ÿ >31

  1. Do you own a bike?
  2. ˆ Yes  No

  3. To what extent are you comfortable biking to campus?
  4.  Very  Comfortable  Somewhat  Uncomfortable  Very

    comfortable comfortable uncomfortable

    If you feel uncomfortable biking, please explain why: __________________________________



  5. Which of the following initiatives (if any) would encourage you to bike to school? (Please check all that apply and rank them in order of importance)
  6. Initiative Ranking

     improved shower facilities _______

     more bike racks _______

     more secure bike storage facilities _______

     bike lanes on campus _______

     bike lanes leading to campus _______

     bike-share program _______

    _________________________ _______

  7. Would you bike more often to campus if there were bike lanes on major roads?
  8. ˆ Yes ˆ No

  9. Do you feel comfortable biking on roads that have bike lanes?
  10. ˆ Yes ˆ No

  11. Which of the following major streets do you take to campus? (Please check all that apply)
  12. ÿ Albert ÿ Columbia ÿ Erb ÿ Fisher-Hallman

    ÿ King ÿ University ÿ Weber ÿ Westmount

    ÿ _____________________ ˆ _____________________

  13. On which of the following roads would you regularly bike if they had bike lanes? (Please check all that apply)
  14. ÿ Albert ÿ Columbia ÿ Erb ÿ Fisher-Hallman

    ÿ King ÿ University ÿ Weber ÿ Westmount

    ÿ _____________________ ˆ _____________________

  15. If you do not currently bike to campus what are your main reasons for not biking to campus?



  17. Would bike lanes encourage you to bike to campus?
  18. ˆ Yes ˆ No

  19. Comments or concerns:


Thank you very much for participating in our survey on modes of transportation to campus. If you have any questions or concerns, please contact Professor Mary Louise McAllister at (519) 888-4567 Ext. 5614. This project has been reviewed by, and received ethics clearance through the Office of Research Ethics at the University of Waterloo. Have a good day!


Appendix B

Corrected Survey Questions

2) How do you get to campus?

Mode Days/Week

other __________ __________

3) How many minutes does it take for you to get to campus (for your primary mode of transportation)?

ÿ <5 ÿ 6-10 ÿ 11-15 ÿ 16-20 ÿ 21-25 ÿ 26-30 ÿ 31+


  1. Which of the following initiatives (if any) would encourage you to bike to school? (Please rank all that apply in order of importance.)

Initiative Ranking

improved shower facilities _______

more bike racks _______

more secure bike storage facilities _______

bike lanes on campus _______

bike lanes leading to campus _______

bike-share program _______

_________________________ _______






Survey Results

Please note: Not all questions were included in the analysis of survey results, reasons for this are discussed in the limitations section of report.

Question 2 - Primary modes to campus.

Question 3 - Time to Campus (using primary mode).

Minutes to Campus

















Question 4 - Do you own a bike?








Question 5 - Comfort level biking to campus.

Question 7 - Would you bike more often to campus if there were bike lanes on major roads?

Bike More if Bike Lanes





No Answer




Question 8 - Are you comfortable biking on roads with bike lanes?

Comfortable biking with lanes





No Answer




Question 12 - Would lanes encourage you to bike more?

Lanes would encourage





No Answer






Question 6 - Initiatives to encourage students to bike more.

Students' Ranking of Initiatives

Initiative 1

Initiative 2

Initiative 3



Bike Lanes Leading to Campus






Bike Lanes On Campus






Bike Share Program






More Secure Bike Storage Facilities






More Bike Racks






Improved Shower Facilities






Total Responses










Appendix D

group Tasks

Meetings were held Mondays at 3:30 until 4:30. Everyone attended all meetings, or made prior arrangements.

Survey Distribution: Becky — 2 classes

Paul - 3 classes

Sara - 7 classes

Shawna — 5 clases

Preparation of Access Database: Becky

Data Entry: Sara — 100

Shawna — 45

Becky — 95

Presentation Preparation: Becky & Shawna

Presentation: Shawna, Sara & Becky

Project Write-Up:

Executive Summary — Becky

Introduction — Sara/Paul

Air Quality — Paul

Campus History — Paul

Region History - Becky

Methods — Sara

Results — Becky

Limitations — Shawna

Recommendations — Shawna

Conclusions - Paul





Appendix e

Regional Municipality of Waterloo Engineering Committee Report

- (available only in hard copy)