WHITE FIR(Abies concolor)
Evergreen needles. 40 - 77 millimetres long.
Dull-ended; not sharp. Flat in profile. Soft to touch. Silvery-blue above. Green underneath. White color is caused by dense lines of white dots on both sides of a needle. Side needles are hook-shaped and curve upwards. Upper needles point forward. Odor of oranges when crushed.Cones:
Cylindrical; round. 7 - 12 centimetres long. Green or purple, becoming brown. Scales are 25 millimetres wide. Small point at tip. Old fir trees bear their seeds in erect cones, mainly along the highest branches. Cones appear in early summer and mature in late fall. Cones grow upward rather than downward on branches. Twigs:
Olive-green. Become grayish with age. Hairless. Bark:
9 -15 metres. Diameter:
- 0.3 - 0.6 metres.
ast-growth. It becomes 50 to 60 feet tall after 30 to 60 years in the garden. Reliable growth of 1 1/2 to 2 feet a year.
Species Requirements Distribution Range:
Native to mountainous regions of the western United States. Commonly planted in Canada. Grow in Zones 3 to 7. Habitat:
Needs high humidity and cooler temperatures. Preferred Light:
Trees can tolerate light shade, but they do best in full sun. Tolerance to Salt:
Intolerant. Tolerance to Shade:
Tolerant. Preferred Soil:
Require moist but well-drained acid soil. Can grow in loam or clay. pH Range: 4.2 to 6.8
Care Common Diseases:
Needle and twig blight.
Leaf cast. Cankers. Root rot.Wood decay. Rusts. Sooty Molds.Common Pests:
Balsam twig aphid.
Spider mite.Dwarf mistletoe. Problems:
Like most fir trees it resists pests and diseases except in warm climates, where it may be attacked by spider mites.
- Will not tolerate hot, dry summers.
- White fir is more tolerant of city conditions than any other species.
- An excellent landscape tree. Look nice in groves, as hedges, or as screens.
- It resists urban dirt and pollution.
- Although it grows best in cool, moist climates it is able to withstand periods of heat and drought.
- More insect and disease resistant than the Blue Spruce.
Firs need very little pruning; hand clippers may be used in early spring to remove the tip of an occasional errant branch. Each tree should have only one central top stem, called a leader; if more than one such leader develops, all but the strongest of them should be removed.
Evergreen trees should not have their lower branches pruned because it ruins the natural form of the tree.Best time to prune is between November and February. Little or no maintenance required. When planting many White Firs together, make sure they have plenty of room to grow, know what species to plant beside it, consider its roots and the affect they might have in an urban setting, and set up a pruning and fertilizing schedule.
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