Final Project
By the Sanding and Salting Group
(Rowena Anderson, Jeanne Huddleston, Geoff Richards, Sarah Campbell, Terri Newman, Sarah Quinlan) 
 
Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction
2.0 Sanding, Salting and Sustainability
3.0 Goals of our Sanding and Salting Project
4.0 Evaluating the Sanding and Salting System
5.0 Background of Sanding and Salting
        5.1 Terms
        5.2 Sodium Chloride
        5.3 Calcium Chloride
        5.4 Sand
6.0 Sanding and Salting Systems
        6.1 Spatial Limits of the Study
        6.2 Actors Involved
        6.3 Broader Context
        6.4 Components of the System
7.0 Specific Criteria for the Sanding and Salting System
        7.1 Efficiency and Effectiveness
        7.2 Environmental Implications
        7.3 Decision Making
8.0 Collection of Necessary Data
        8.1 Custodial Survey
        8.2 University of Manitoba
        8.3 Limitations to System Evaluation
9.0 Current System of Sanding and Salting at the University of Waterloo
        Figure 1 Systems Diagram
        9.1 Visual Observations of the Sanding and Salting System
10.0 Alternatives to Sanding and Salting
        10.1 De-icers
        10.2 Anti-icers
        10.3 Abrasives
11.0 Alternative Approaches to Reducing Use of Impact of Chemical Agents
        11.1 The Complete Banning of Salt
        11.2 Proactive Approaches
        11.3 Ways to Improve Performance of Salt
12.0 Alternative Systems for Sanding and Salting
        12.1 Waterloo
        12.2 Ministry of Transportation Recommendations used in the Town of Goderich
13.0 Evaluation of the Sanding and Salting System
        13.1 Evaluation of the University System Based on MTO Recommendations
        13.2 Evaluation of the University System Based on Specific Criteria
14.0 Recommendations
15.0 Conclusion
16.0 Contact People
17.0 References
 


1.0 Introduction

One of a university's largest resources is its people. Like many other universities, the University of Waterloo is using its valuable resource of staff, students, and faculty to make changes. Programs such as WATgreen and ERS 285 demonstrate the growing concern for both people and natural environments.

WATgreen was founded in 1990 and has continuously "presented an opportunity for students, staff, and faculty to improve the quality of their environment, while decreasing the overall operating cost of the university" (WATgreen, 1997). WATgreen has proven to be a worthwhile program. It's projects have seen great success and acceptance on the university campus.

 Working alongside the WATgreen team is the ERS 285 class. ERS 285 "students are expected, on the basis of their analysis, to identify where environmental performance might be improved on campus" (Greening the Campus, 1998). The course offers a chance for students, with the help of WATgreen and other faculty members, to identify, explore, and evaluate a system on campus. These evaluations and resulting suggestions can then be implemented in order to create a more sustainable campus.

In this particular ERS 285 project we will be studying snow and ice removal currently in operation at the University of Waterloo. We focused on the sanding and salting system used on campus which involves the de-icing and traction procedures used by Plant Operations at the University. The following report is an evaluation of this system in terms of its sustainability on campus.
 

2.0 Sanding, Salting and Sustainability

The purpose of most environmental efforts on campus, and elsewhere, is to achieve sustainability. Many organizations and individuals have attempted to define sustainability. Due to all of the variables that have come into play it is difficult to produce an all encompassing definition. The United Nations Brundtland Commission has produced one of the most comprehensive and widely accepted definitions of sustainability. They define sustainability as "meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." This broad definition takes into account, social, environmental, economic and political system.

Keeping in mind the definition outlined by the Brundtland Commission, we have created our own vision of sustainability for the University of Waterloo campus. The overall vision is a campus that operates its social, economic, and political systems in harmony with the environment. In order to achieve this several steps must be taken. First, it is important to keep in mind that the purpose of the system must remain intact for social objectives, such as safety, and for economic objectives, such as liability. To deal with the environmental concerns, the most environmentally sensitive and economically feasible materials and procedures should be used on campus. This will not only benefit the vegetation and organisms on campus, it will also benefit all life forms inhabiting the Grand River Watershed, as practices on campus affect surrounding areas. Environmentally conscious efforts will benefit both the social and economic systems immensely. By creating a cleaner environment, the inhabitants' health and well being will also improve. Less money will need to be spent on environmental repair. These extra funds can be put toward social programs within the campus and continue to strengthen all other systems currently in place. This example is just a small fraction of the vision that we have for our campus. The main point is that by altering one system in an ecologically positive way, other systems on campus can only benefit.
 

3.0 Goals of the Sanding and Salting Project

The sanding and salting project has two main goals. The immediate goal of this project is to gain a complete understanding of the sanding and salting system on campus. This is important in order to obtain a concrete grasp on how the system functions, taking into account the socio-political and environmental components. This understanding of the system provides a clear and concise picture of the communication network among the different actors, as well as the general impacts of the system on the environment.

The ultimate goal of the project is to determine whether a more ecologically and economically sustainable alternative is necessary and if so, to make further recommendations that will aid in its implementation. Furthermore, this project is expected to become a foundation for further ERS 285 Greening the Campus projects.

 
4.0 Evaluating the Sanding and Salting System

Evaluation of the sanding and salting system on campus is based on efficiency and effectiveness, environmental implications, and decision making. Efficiency and effectiveness are evaluated based on how well the system removes snow and ice and provides traction, making the best possible use of resources. This determines how smoothly the system functions. Environmental implications are evaluated based on the known biophysical impacts of the substances used on campus. Alternatives are also examined and compared in order to suggest more environmentally feasible ones. Decision making is examined based on an assessment of the separation of duties between staff, as well as how they know when to sand and salt. This assessment ensures that the system functions properly, without overlap, and in a timely manner. A healthy communication network, at the decision making level, contributes to the continuity of the flows within the system. The specific criteria for each of these issues are discussed  in section 7.0.
 

5.0 Background of Sanding and Salting 
 
5.1 Terms

Results of testing has shown that chemical agents can be used much more effectively to prevent the bonding of the snow or ice to the pavement, if sprayed prior to precipitation (anti-icing) rather than trying to destroy the bond once formed by spraying after precipitation (de-icing) (Chollar, 1997).

Chemical agents, such as sodium chloride are spread on ice or snow. The de-icer seeps through, melting and breaking the bond with the pavement. Once this has been accomplished, it facilitates snow removal. De-icers are often combined with abrasives to increase their effectiveness (Chollar, 1997). Anti-icing involves the dispersal of the chemical agent on the roadway prior to precipitation. The chemical agent starts melting with the first drops or flakes of precipitation, thereby reacting before the snow or ice has time to bond with the pavement. In this way, anti-icing procedures reduce the amount of sand, salt, and other materials needed to keep the roads safe and clear. In addition, they also decrease the amount of time, equipment and manpower required (Chollar, 1997). Abrasives (also known as anti-skid materials) provide additional friction for vehicle tires as well as for increased traction. Abrasives are materials such as sand, crushed stone and cinders (WVDOT, 1997). They are most often used in conjunction with chemical de-icers to aid in winter safety and ease of snow removal (Chollar, 1997). Abrasives have the limited potential of providing additional traction on slippery surfaces, but do not melt snow. Their uses are limited to places that experience very cold temperatures for prolonged periods of times (Jones, 1981).
There are currently three types of de-icing or traction agents in use on the University of Waterloo campus. These are sodium chloride (commonly referred to as rock or road salt), calcium chloride and sand.

5.2 Sodium Chloride

Sodium chloride is a naturally occurring mineral found in underground deposits left behind in the sites of former seabeds (WVDOT, 1997). This agent is highly effective at ice removal in addition to being relatively inexpensive. Sodium chloride is effective at temperatures up to between negative twelve degrees and negative eighteen degrees Celsius. When it is added to snow or ice, it breaks the bond which snow forms with the pavement, thus allowing for easy removal.

Sodium chloride has a number of environmental impacts associated with its use. It may increase groundwater salinity, which decreases the potability of water.  In addition this increase may adversely affect aquatic ecosystems. Salts also causes leaching of toxins from soils which are transported into groundwater or surface water (Technology Corner, 1996).

In relation to de-icers, of concern to the University's custodial staff is the residue that is tracked into buildings. The campus uses calcium chloride at the entrances of buildings, instead of sodium chloride, due to the fact that the former leaves fewer residues. This will be discussed later in the report under section 8.1

5.3 Calcium Chloride

Calcium chloride, applied in small quantities with sodium chloride or on its own, can extend the melting range of snow and ice down to negative twenty-nine degrees Celsius, as opposed to the melting range of sodium chloride. It also improves the melting effectiveness, as it requires fewer applications than salt (sodium chloride). It is used mainly on concrete because it does not contribute to concrete spalling, which is the cracking of the top layer of concrete, in the way that sodium chloride does.

Significant amounts of information gathered from journal articles and web sources, have led to the conclusion that calcium chloride has the potential to cause environmental damage. For example, elevated concentrations of calcium chloride in ground water have been scientifically linked to road salting. Calcium chloride does more damage in smaller streams than in larger rivers; this is due to the dilution factor of large rivers. Calcium chloride may also change aquatic habitats causing the extinction or migration of native species and the potential introduction of exotic species. This is of particular concern to the University of Waterloo due to the presence of Laurel Creek, which traverses the campus, eventually flowing into the Grand River. The Grand River is one of the main water supplies for this region, therefore it is important to ensure that its integrity is preserved. Calcium chloride is also responsible for the transportation of toxins into surface or groundwater (Technology Corner, 1996). Furthermore, it has been observed that salts do a significant amount of damage to vegetation along treated roads and pathways. An interesting fact to note is that plants accumulate more salt in the winter than in the summer, thus testifying to the effects of road salting. General effects on vegetation can include die back of twigs, reduced cold hardiness of plants and reduced plant transpiration (Jones, 1981).

5.4 Sand

Sand is one form of "abrasive" and is used in large amounts on the University's campus roadways. Sand used alone to combat winter conditions has been proven ineffective as it does not remove snow and ice. Large amounts will result in clogged sewers and drains. Therefore, it is used most often, in conjunction with de-icing agents, such as calcium chloride, sodium chloride and others (see alternatives). When combined with these agents, sand provides traction, thus reducing the slippery surface area needing de-icing agents.
 

6.0 Sanding and Salting Systems
 
6.1 Spatial Limits of the Study

This project is limited to the University of Waterloo campus that is sanded and salted by Plant Operations. Almost all roads, paved pathways and buildings inside Ring Road, including Ring Road, are sanded and/or salted. Only the entrances and exits to parking lots are sanded or salted so parking lots are not part of this evaluation. Other locations included in this study but not inside Ring Road are the Married Student Apartments, Student Village 1 and the Ron Eydt Village, the Minota Hagey Residences, Columbia Ice Field, East Campus Hall, B.F. Goodrich Building and 156 Columbia Street. The church colleges are not sanded by the grounds crew so they are not part of this study.

6.2  Actors Involved

The core actors of this study are Plant Operations,  grounds crew and the custodial staff. Plant Operations determines if the weather warrants the application of sand and/or salt on the roads and pathways specified earlier.  The custodial staff apply some salt and sand to the entrance of buildings, but are mainly responsible for cleaning up the sand and salt that is tracked inside buildings. The grounds crew are responsible for the application of sand and salt inside the boundaries mentioned earlier and also for the clean up of the sand in the spring.

The supporting actors include Health and Safety, Campus Police, Sifto Salt, Kissner Milling and Forwell Limited. Health and Safety contacts Plant Operations about the slip and fall areas that have been recorded so that Plant Operations can determine potentially dangerous areas. Campus Police also inform the grounds crew which areas might be dangerous. Sifto Salt supplies the salt while Kissner Milling supplies calcium chloride and  Forwell Limited supplies sand.

6.3 Broader Context

The system and practice of sanding and salting is embedded in the broader environmental and political systems. Sanding and salting is part of the practice of snow removal at the University of Waterloo. The University is legally responsible for the maintenance of its property. This system is political as it relates to regulations of the region, which are enacted to ensure safe passage for emergency services, automobiles and pedestrians. Sanding and salting on campus also lies within the larger system of the Regional Municipality of Waterloo. Sand and salt from the campus inevitably end up in the watershed and travel outside the campus boundary, resulting in impacts on other areas.

6.4 Components of the System

There are four different systems involved in this project. The first is the decision making system. Snow or ice, must accumulate on the ground or pavement, which is a condition. This condition influences Plant Operations' decision of whether or not to apply sand or salt. The next decision is how much sand and salt is needed to make the campus and other locations safe for the users. The application method is the second system. The components of this system include the applied sand and salt, the people who apply the sand and salt, the sanding trucks, plows and street sweepers. The objective of this system is to make the roads and building entrances safe for travel.

Transportation is another system. This system includes everyone and everything that uses the roads and pathways on campus, which are cars, trucks, bicycles and pedestrians. The roads and pathways are the components of this system. Finally there is the biophysical system. This system involves the effects of the sand and salt on the environment. The affected components of this system include Laurel Creek, the Grand River Watershed, and vegetation (trees, shrubs grass and other vegetation).
 

7.0 Specific Criteria for the Sanding and Salting System

7.1 Efficiency and Effectiveness

Efficiency and effectiveness is part of the application system as described in section 9.0. The following criteria will be used to assess the sanding and salting system on campus, examining:

These criteria will be examined in order to decrease labour time, reduce snow or ice related accidents on campus, and potentially reduce costs and thus save the University money. As the evaluation of this system is working towards the definition of sustainability,  the goal of these criteria should be to make the most effective and efficient use of  monetary, time, and human resources as well as being environmentally sensitive.
 
7.2 Environmental Implications

Environmental implications are part of the biophysical system. An assessment of this section will examine what the impacts of the use of sand and salt are on the biophysical environment in terms of:

These criteria will be assessed in order to determine if the system impacts negatively on the biophysical environment. Furthermore, based on this assessment it will be determined whether there are alternatives to the current substances and procedures being used which will contribute to long term sustainability. In order to preserve the environment for future generations, substances and procedures should be used which will maintain, rather than degrade, water quality, healthy vegetation and aquatic and terrestrial life.
 
7.3 Decision Making

Communication is part of the decision making system. An evaluation of this system will assess the following criteria:

These criteria will be assessed in order to determine if the system flows well in terms of how the key actors know when, where and how to sand and salt, how much, and how speedily. Communication, as part of the decision making system, is essential in order for the entire system to function properly.
 

8.0 Collection of Necessary Data

Key data that has been collected includes the total weight of sand, salt and calcium chloride that is used each year by Plant Operations (see questions asked Plant Operations). Mr. Van Dongen, Plant Operations supervisor, has supplied the data pertaining to all aspects of the sanding and salting system. This information provides a breakdown of each product, the dates each product was delivered to the campus, and the amounts delivered (see Plant Operations Data). Having this detailed information allowed us to determine if the use of a particular medium increased or decreased, as a result of a change in the annual snowfall or a change in the application methods. The information also provided us with an opportunity to make comparisons with other sanding and salting practices outside the university.

As other universities have to face cold winter weather that brings snow and ice we felt that it was important to contact the University of Manitoba to inquire about their methods of sanding and salting (see questions asked University of Manitoba). This is important as they may be using other materials for this process that are more effective and less harmful to the environment. We also contacted the City of Waterloo to obtain an outline of their current practices of sanding and salting. We have gathered information regarding the materials used, as well as the procedures followed. We have also evaluated the Ministry of Transportation's recommended treatments and application quantities so that they can be compared with the system in place at the University of Waterloo.

8.1 Custodial Survey

A questionnaire was completed to gain a representative sample of the custodial staff's opinions and concerns on the effects of sanding and salting near campus buildings. Custodians were questioned from the two buildings which experience the highest pedestrian traffic levels, the William G. Davis Centre (Davis Centre) and Needles Hall (see questions asked custodians).  Six custodians were questioned at Needles Hall and seventeen at the Davis Centre. The custodians questioned had been working at the University for between three months and thirteen years. At Needles Hall, when asked if deicing materials were laid down outside of buildings, the custodial staff stated that they lay down calcium chloride at the entranceways, if they are icy. When asked how the material was spread, they stated that it was done by hand. When asked how much of the material they laid down, and what criteria led to this decision, the custodians stated that personal judgement was used to determine how much was needed, depending on how slippery the surface looked. The custodial staff at the Davis Centre stated that they only apply materials at the loading dock, but here sand and salt are applied in addition to calcium chloride. The decision to apply the materials is made in the same manner as at Needles Hall. When asked if there were any guidelines to determine how much material to lay down, and when to lay it down, both groups of custodians stated that none existed..

The custodians were questioned as to whether or not sand, salt or calcium chloride was tracked into buildings, and if so, what the impacts were. At both sites, it was observed that deicing and traction substances were tracked throughout the buildings, with the greatest impacts being seen at entranceways and on stairs. The specific impacts of the substances used were reported to be damaged carpets, as the substances eat carpet fibres and leave stains and odours;  corroded metal at doorways, and damaged cement and vinyl tiles. The stains left by salt and calcium chloride on carpets were noted to be very difficult, if not impossible to remove, as were the white coatings left on hard surfaces. An additional impact at the Davis Centre was that the salt and snow tracked in, melted and flowed through cracks into the library basement ceiling, forming lumps. The custodial staff at both buildings were questioned as to the amount of additional work required of them in the winter, and they estimated their workload to double.  They stated that more vacuuming was required, as well as sweeping, mopping and dusting. Due to the fact that the de-icing and traction materials become so imbedded in the carpets and caked onto the floors, the cleaning process is time consuming and must often be repeated.

 The next question asked of the custodians was what was being done now to protect the inside of buildings from the effects of the deicing and traction materials. They stated that, at present, the only way of counteracting the inflow of these materials into the buildings was by placing runners at the entranceways, which are changed or maintained daily. However, in spite of this, a great deal of sand and salt would nonetheless be tracked in throughout the buildings.  The custodians were also asked what they felt could be done to protect the inside of buildings from these impacts. At the Davis Centre, the custodians stated that because the building was open for twenty-four hours a day, there was no real solution. However, the custodians at both buildings expressed the opinion that there is an overuse of sand, salt and calcium chloride. When asked if they felt that these materials should be used on campus, they stated that there was nothing else they knew of to use, and that some materials were necessary when the entrances were slippery. When asked what they would like to see done regarding the current sanding and salting procedures on campus, the custodians stated that they believe that less of the materials should be used adjacent to the buildings, and instead more shoveling should be done. Furthermore, the custodians noted that often salt and calcium chloride was laid down in anticipation of a storm, and sometimes the storm never materialized. The pre-storm application led to these materials being tracked into buildings nonetheless. They stated that sand and salt application should only be done when a storm occurs. There exists a discrepancy with this concern, as grounds crew stated that they never lay down materials in anticipation of a storm. Finally, the custodial staff was asked if they had ever expressed concerns or opinions regarding the sanding and salting system on campus, and if so, what the results were. Some custodians stated that they had previously expressed opinions to the custodial supervisor, however, they had not received any apparent feedback as of yet.

8.2 University of Manitoba

Information regarding the use of poultry grit was collected through contact with the Plant Operations department at the University of Manitoba. Mr. Rzeszutek of plant operations was able to provide us with information about the product, its application, and its effectiveness. The following information is a summary of responses that Mr. Rzeszutek provided us with. The questions that Mr. Rzeszutek was presented with can be viewed in "Questions Asked to the University of Manitoba".

The University of Manitoba is located in the city of Winnipeg. Like most other provinces in Canada, Manitoba is struck with harsh winters that result in a dangerous combination of wind, snow, and ice. The average winter temperature in Manitoba ranges from -5 degrees Celsius to -16 degrees Celsius. These low temperatures require the use of a reliable material that will provide good traction to ensure safe conditions.

Approximately ten years ago a housekeeping manager from the University of Manitoba discovered the use of poultry grit, while travelling through Switzerland. The material was being widely used and its benefits were noted as numerous. Upon the manager's return to Canada, the plant operations department was informed of the discovery. A local poultry grit distributor was contacted and the material was soon implemented on campus.

The University of Manitoba has always resisted the use of ice melting compounds on walkways, patios, and building entrances. The discovery of poultry grit turned out to be the most effective material, in terms of traction, that had been used on the University campus. Grit has proven to be extremely effective for traction and safety. The material is offered in three different grades that offer different levels of traction. For example, the fine grade (#1) is commonly used on glare ice. The product is also very effective in regards to environmental effects and practical uses. In relation to environmental effects, large amounts of the material can be recovered and reused in the spring. This results in decreased sedimentation in local waterways and reduces the amount of waste generated by the university as a whole. In relation to practical uses, poultry grit, unlike calcium chloride, does not result in concrete spawling (the degradation of concrete surfaces resulting in a chipping away of the concrete layers).

Poultry grit can be applied in several different ways. On walkways and patios, spreading is accomplished using a Ford 2000 tractor equipped with a fertilizer spreader. Most entrances to buildings are done by hand using generous amounts of the grit. A mechanized hand spreader is used to apply grit to larger building entrances, as hand application is time consuming.

Other information provided by the University of Manitoba is found in Section 10.3. This section outlines a general description of the material and how it is used.

8.3 Limitations to System Evaluation

Two limiting factors exist in comparing and evaluating the data on the sanding and salting system at the University of Waterloo. The first limiting factor is a lack of important information on the exact methods used for the sanding and salting system. Plant Operations, the department responsible for sanding and salting at the university, lacks consistent guidelines and procedures for snow and ice removal. Decisions made on when to sand and salt, and amounts needed to be used, are done on the basis of personal judgment. This makes the sanding and salting system difficult to evaluate and compare with other alternatives. The second limiting factor involves the use of a 50/50 sand and salt mixture by Plant Operations. As stated in section 9.0, the spreader does not give amounts on combined sand and salt mixtures, only individual sand or salt measurements. Therefore the amount of the mixture used is only an estimation. Also sand and salt are used for different purposes and at different times, so evaluating the effectiveness of the mix is difficult. The use of the mixture is hard to compare with other procedures and recommendations. For example, the Ministry of Transportation only gives recommendations in relation to sand or salt when applied solely. The only reference made toward a mix, is that when salt is in excess of 5% of a mixture, procedures for salt application should be considered (Transportation Operation Branch, 1982). MTO recommendations will be discussed in greater detail in section 12.2.
 

9.0 Current System of Sanding and Salting at the University of Waterloo 


Figure 1. Systems Diagram

For the purpose of the system study we have focused on the systems of decision making, sand and salt application, and the biophysical environment. The transportation system and the safety of pedestrians is important, as they are the primary reasons for sanding and salting. Aggregates are put down on the ice and snow to ensure safe transportation on campus. Our system is mainly divided in two sections. The first section is comprised of the boxes found above the dashed line in the diagram. This section is a chain of decisions that are made by Plant Operations (sometimes in conjunction with Campus Police). The second section is found below the dashed line. This section outlines the physical movement of the sand and salt after it has been laid down by the Plant Operations' crew.

The first input to the systems diagram is the biophysical component of weather which is included in the decision making section. Overnight weather which leads to snowfall or icy conditions initiates the decision making process. The morning after snow or ice accumulation, the grounds foreperson decides whether or not sanding and salting is required. This decision is made purely on the basis of visual observation of campus conditions by the foreperson. At times the foreperson consults with campus police as to whether they feel that sanding and salting is needed. If there is not sufficient snow or ice accumulation, no action is taken by the grounds crew. If there is sufficient snow or ice, a crew will be sent out to plow (if needed) and apply sand and salt. More in depth observations of this stage are explained in section 9.1.

This then flows into the bottom section of the system diagram in which we trace the physical path of sand and salt as it is applied to various parts of the campus. The sand and salt is applied using a mixture of 50% sand and 50% salt, with the exception of building entranceways, where pure salt is applied by hand. In the past, sand has been known to cause considerable damage to the floor of the buildings on campus (see section 8.1).  The decision was then made to only apply salt to entranceways in an effort to cut down on floor damage to the school. This does not ensure that sand is not tracked inside buildings but does cut down on the amount. Calcium chloride is applied in small amounts to concrete areas where there is a chance that salt might harm it.

Sand and salt is applied to roadways, paved pathways and entrances to buildings. Sand and salt that is applied to roadways and pathways move in one or more of four directions in the Systems Diagram. The first possibility is that the sand and salt is swept up in the spring by Plant Operations and taken to the University of Waterloo compost area on North Campus. The second possibility the sand and salt can take is into the watershed. This can happen from direct runoff into the water system or by leeching through the soils into the water system. The sand and salt is then introduced into Laurel Creek and can affect aquatic life and vegetation in the creek. The third possibility is that the sand and salt is plowed up with the snow and taken to a snow dumping site. The fourth possibility is that sand and salt are tracked inside the buildings of the school where they join the path of the sand and salt that is applied at the entrance to buildings. After entering the buildings, the sand and salt is collected by the custodians and thrown into the garbage. Eventually this garbage is taken to the Kitchener/Waterloo landfill site. Even though the landfill site is outside of our boundaries we feel that it is important that we include this in our system to stress the point that the excess sand and salt adds to the amount of garbage that is thrown away by our university. The excess garbage that is generated further reduces the capacity of the municipal landfill.

Sand and salt is applied in three ways: by hand, through the use of small farm tractors, and by a single-axle dump truck. Application is performed by hand by custodial staff.  It is put down in small amounts at entrances to buildings or in other areas adjacent to buildings that require de-icing or traction. However, it is not the responsibility of the custodians to remove snow and ice or to provide traction on campus. Materials are put down only when an individual custodian feels that it is necessary for safety reasons. Grounds crew is responsible for the application of sand and salt to sidewalks, paved pathways and entrances to buildings (materials are not applied to unpaved pathways). This application is done by hand and through the use of small farm tractors equipped with grid-drop spreaders. The roadways are sanded and salted by a single-axle dump truck, equipped with a circular broadcast spreader. The exact type of spreader attached to the truck is unclear, but it is either a G. I.-74, G. I.-77 or G. I.-85 spreader, according to the distribution charts that were received from Plant Operations. Sand and salt that has been applied by hand and through the use of small machines has not been quantified, as we have found no consistent data on the amounts of materials put down. However the materials laid down by the dump truck have been calculated based on figures from the distribution chart, and estimations by a Plant Operations employee.

The distribution chart for G. I.-74, G. I.-77 & G. I.-85 spreader is given in pounds per mile based on truck speed, gate settings and conveyor dial setting (or application rate). In order to evaluate this data a formula was created to convert the information into kilograms per kilometre. The formula is as follows:
 
X lbs/mile = __X lbs__ * ___1 kg___ * _0.621 mile_ = Y kg/km
                      1 mile           2.205 lbs           1 km
 
Plant Operation employees have provided data on the average settings and truck speed used during sand and salt application. In using the most conservative speed and setting given by Plant Operations employees, the kilograms of sand and salt applied per kilometre has been determined through the use of the above formula.  At a truck speed of 25 km/hr, with a gate setting of 1-3/4" and a conveyor dial setting of 6, the application rate of sand is 698 kg/km and the rate for salt is 466 kg/km. These rates are found to be in excess of other snow and ice removal systems that were researched and this will be discussed further in section 12.2.

The distribution chart for the spreader only gives data for the application of sand or salt, so the exact application rate for a sand and salt mix was not listed on the chart. However, the sand and salt dump truck driver estimated the use of the mixture. According to this employee, the 12-15 mile route uses 8-10 tons of the sand and salt mixture per trip. In order to compare this with other data, miles were changed to kilometres and tons were converted to kilograms. Therefore, between 302 and 477 kg/km are put down on the roadway by the sanding and salting truck.
 
9.1 Visual Observations of the Sanding and Salting System

On the morning of March 12 three of our group members obtained a firsthand look at the sanding and salting procedures on campus.  The snowfall was minimal, but erring on the side of caution, Plant Operations made the decision to send their crews out on campus.

Sarah Quinlan joined an employee in a sander to observe the actual process of laying down sand and salt.  Sarah Campbell and Rowena Anderson joined the Plant Operations' supervisor on a detailed tour of all areas used by and cared for by Plant Operations.  This allowed for a unique question and answer period, leading to a better understanding of the process involved. Observations made on this trip are outlined below.

Storage facilities: There are three main storage devices used by Plant Operations. Sand and salt that is brought from the distributors is kept at the Plant Operations
storage facilities on Bearinger Road and kept in a pile beside two partially closed containment units. These units are large, have a roof and three walls, leaving one side open to the elements as seen in Figure 2. One unit is used to house salt, as shown in Figure 3, and one is used to house a sand and salt mixture, as shown in Figure 4.  This mixture is mixed by hand by Plant Operations grounds crew.


Figure 2   Storage facility on Bearinger Road

                                                                        Figure 3   Salt mixture
                                                          Figure 4   Sand and salt mixture
 
Another storage unit is located in the Plant Operations main office area beside the Campus Police. In a covered parking area, six to seven loads of the sand and salt mixture are stored, for quick and easy access.

Lastly, there are numerous small green containment units located around the campus in and outside of buildings.  These containers increase the accessibility of  materials.  Most of these units have the word "sand" written on them but they actually contain salt. Some of the units are wood which can be seen in Figure 5 by the box in the foreground of the picture. Some of the units are plastic and are more fully covered than those made from wood, which can also be seen in Figure 5 in the background of the picture.
 

                                                                                Figure 5    Salt containment units located on campus

Contractors: The church colleges hire private contractors to sand and salt their campuses. This area used to be the responsibility of Plant Operations. Contractors use straight salt on the college campuses because they are not able to buy large quantities and mix them as Plant Operations does.

Dumpsite: Excess sand is taken to the university's compost area near optometry. Excess snow is taken to a dump area that is located by the university greenhouses, near Columbia Lake Townhouses.

Parking lots: Plant Operations expressed a concern for a common accident area often being between parked cars in parking lots. There is not enough manpower to sand these areas by hand, which would seemingly be the only solution to this problem.

Trucks: The trucks used by Plant Operations usually last for about 15 years. They are washed frequently, every 100 hours of use, to ensure that salt damage is kept to a minimum.

Route: The route that is covered by the truck takes three hours to completely sand and salt.
 

10.0 Alternatives to Sanding and Salting

"Once, solid salt was the unchallenged snow and ice control agent of choice used in de-icing operations for all highway departments; but now, use of alternative chemicals, anti-icing and other application methods, and consideration of non-conventional operations for snow and ice control are actively being explored" (Chollar, 1997)

In the course of research for this project, it has become apparent that there is little agreement over the optimum rate of application and the type of materials or mixture of materials used on snow and ice. (Jones, 1981) The following addresses a number of the most feasible alternatives to date.

10.1 De-icers

Calcium Magnesium Acetate (CMA)

CMA is made of dolomite limestone and acetic acid. This agent inhibits corrosion, while in addition, causes little damage to concrete and plants. As extensive environmental testing has not shown any serious negative effects, it is used as an alternative to salt in environmentally sensitive areas (MTO, 1997). However, this chemical deicer is only effective to -6 degrees Celsius (Horticulture, 1998). Some additional concerns, as stated by the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (MTO), are that it is ineffective in removing snowpack and is easily blown off dry pavement or packed snow. Furthermore, there is a high cost associated with the use of CMA (MTO, 1997).

 10.2 Anti-icers

"Ice Ban"

This anti-icing agent is a thin liquid, consisting of alcohol distillation by-products, and a small quantity of magnesium chloride. "Ice Ban" is biodegradable, does not accumulate on the roadside like sand or salt, and is far less corrosive than salt. It can be used in conjunction with sand to make the sand more effective, or can be sprayed on the road directly. It can be sprayed prior to a snowstorm to keep snow from sticking to the road (anti-icing) or sprayed on the road ice to melt it (de-icing). A city in the United States, called Watertown, is one such area that has been using this agent for over a year now. In 1997, their roads were clear of all the sand and salt. This alternative cost the town significantly less by treating the roads prior to a storm (information received by viewing email at crw@world.std.com).

Verglimit

Verglimit is a mixture of chemicals that is incorporated into the top layer of asphalt roadway during paving. It consists of calcium chloride that has been treated. This technique functions as an anti-icer. Under normal traffic conditions, a calcium chloride brine is continuously released from it to prevent the bonding of ice to the road. This thin layer of concentrated solution is spread by the passing traffic (Jones, 1981). While effective down to 20 0 C this approach also results in very little runoff. However, while its installation doubles the cost of surfacing a road, savings are experienced at a later date. To reduce costs, this technique can be applied in selected areas of the roadway, where need has been demonstrated. However, the use of verglimit does not totally eliminate the need for other more conventional de-icers (Jones, 1981).

 10.3 Abrasives

Poultry Grit

Poultry Grit is an interesting alternative currently in use at the University of Manitoba. While travelling through Switzerland, housekeeping mangers from the University of Manitoba observed that crushed granite was being used nationwide to provide traction on slippery surfaces. This grit was originally used as a feed supplement to aid in digestion for chicken and turkeys. However, it has been found to be very effective in increasing traction and safety on snow or ice covered areas. Poultry grit is relatively inexpensive and it has numerous environmental benefits. For example, much of the grit can be swept up in the spring and reused at a later date, thereby reducing impacts on the natural environment. Poultry grit also has other advantages. Its use does not contribute to concrete spalling, and it does not seem to damage floor surfaces unlike some other contemporary de-icing materials, such as sodium chloride. The use of poultry grit on the University of Waterloo campus may be an efficient and less damaging option in snow removal and de-icing practices (information received via email Ed Rzeszutek, February 12, 1998).

Contacting the University of Manitoba provided us with detailed figures on the amount of poultry grit used yearly.  The Plant Operations department of the university reports using on 18 140 kg of poultry grit compared to our 700 000 kg of sand/salt mixture used by the University of Waterloo.   Though the University of Manitoba uses poultry grit on an area only half the size of the University of Waterloo campus, the figures are considerable smaller even after this is taken into consideration.
 

11.0 Alternative Approaches to Reducing Use and Impacts of Chemical Agents

11.1 The Complete Banning of Salt:

While there are numerous environmental impacts associated with the use of salt and other de-icing agents, it is evident that the complete banning of agents (salts) is inappropriate. Through the United States, many ordinances were passed over the years, banning the use of salts. However, all of these bans were lifted after problems with ice buildup were experienced.  While some cities endured the entire winter without salt, there was however, a need to apply sand over and over. This resulted in an accumulation of sand on the roads, creating tremendous problems. In addition, there were many areas where ice never melted, thus jeopardizing safety of users (Paddock, 1990).

11.2 Proactive Approaches:

Where in the past, energy and resources have focussed on de-icing, new technologies have emerged, which stress preventative anti-icing measures. In pursuing this methodology, as opposed to the conventional reactive approach, new techniques must be implemented

Through the implementation of anti-icing strategies, the snow and ice never get a chance to stick to the pavement. Thus the result is a win-win situation for all involved. Motorists benefit from safer travel conditions, less salt and other materials are used by agencies, resulting in not only economic savings but also less impacts on the natural environment. In addition, crews may be more efficiently scheduled resulting in long term savings through the minimization in overtime and standby costs (Chollar, 1997).  Though some substances used in proactive approaches can be beneficial, it is not recommend that sand or road salt be used in anticipation of a storm based on MTO recommendations.

11.3 Ways to Improve Performance of Salt:

Many cases of severe water contamination by salt, comes from improper storage.  Improper storage includes such things as salt stockpiled outside, or salt left uncovered. Precipitation can carry high quantities of salt in solution into surrounding soil and water. Proper salt storage buildings have been developed by various institutions (Paddock, 1990). This is of importance to the University of Waterloo because the main storage unit on campus is  three-sided, leaving one side open to the elements. In addition to storage, reducing the amount of salt used is of great importance. Methods include: using a mix of sand and salt, as opposed to pure salt, wetting salt before it is spread, thus increasing the proportion that sticks to the roadway, and reducing that lost to the air. In addition, snow fences and trees can reduce the amount of snow blown onto the road (Paddock, 1990).
 

12.0 Alternative Systems of Sanding and Salting

In order to evaluate the sanding and salting procedures at the University of Waterloo it is important to study other systems. This will allow for understanding of the differences and similarities that may exist and provide ideas for improvements that can be made to the University of Waterloo sanding and salting system.  We have chosen to study the city of Waterloo's snow and ice removal system, as their weather conditions are identical to those of the university.  We have also chosen to analyze the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (MTO) recommendations, for snow and ice removal, as used in the town of Goderich.  The MTO recommendation were selected because they are widely accepted across the province.

12.1 Waterloo

The city of Waterloo services three hundred and fifty kilometers of roads each winter. Approximately six thousand five hundred tonnes of road salt and six hundred tonnes of road sand are used each year on the roads serviced by Waterloo. If the temperature gets very cold liquid calcium is used to help break up the ice. The city of Waterloo uses fourteen thousand litres of liquid calcium each year.

There are two people at the garage twenty-four hours a day, working in eight-hour shifts, watching the road and weather conditions. They use a radio tracking system to monitor the system and a large plastic map of Waterloo. A dispatcher will take complaints and mark off areas that already have been plowed or need to be plowed on the large map. The dispatcher will then radio the people that are out plowing the streets and tell them which areas need to be done. The large plastic map is marked into zones and each crew, consisting of one or two people, will go out and plow and sand and/or salt that zone. Each zone is divided up into regional roads that must be done first, secondary city streets, school and city bus routes, industrial roads, then streets that need to be salted and finally streets that need to be sanded.

If less than two inches of snow falls on the streets, the staff that is at the garage will go out and plow the streets and sand or salt them if needed. If two inches of snow or more falls the employees at the garage must then call Frank Hergott and Chuck Neisen, who are the Roads and Storm Manager and Roads Supervisor, and ask them what to do. The staff at the garage may contact people who are on call and get them to help service the roads. When the staff come into work they must sign in, fill out a form that states, who called them in, what zone they are doing and what truck they are using. When they come back from their route they must go back to the chart and fill out how much sand and salt they used on their route. The amount of salt used in each salting truck is determined by what setting their salter is set to; the light setting applies sixty kilograms per kilometer, the next setting (which is for one to two inches of snow) applies one hundred and ten kilograms of salt per kilometer and the heavy setting applies two hundred and ten kilograms per kilometer. The drivers can only use the last setting when they are instructed by the supervisors. A Dickey-John is an instrument in the salting truck, which costs three thousand dollars, and measures out how much salt the driver used on their run, what setting was used and how much salt the truck has been applied in total for that year. The person driving the truck will take the information from the Dickey-John and enter it into the forms when their route is completed.

The city of Waterloo uses mostly salt and very little sand. The goal of this system is to get the snow off the streets as soon as possible to make the streets accessible. However, when sand is used a 3:1 mixture of sand to salt is used. On average, the city of Waterloo will spend forty to fifty thousand dollars a night.  This amount includes wages, gas and materials.

12.2 Ministry of Transportation Recommendations used in the Town of Goderich

The snow and ice removal system used in the town of Goderich is based on recommendations and guidelines from the Ministry of Transportation (MTO) in Ontario. The Ministry of Transportation has recommended amounts of substances to be used and the treatments that should be used for different temperatures, precipitation and road conditions (see MTO Recommended Treatments).
 
According to MTO recommendations, one of the first things taken into consideration, with regards to snow and ice removal, are the specific weather conditions. Storm severity and duration is one element that is considered along with the condition of pavement, wind direction, type of precipitation, existing temperatures and temperature changes. These factors are then evaluated to determine when and how to proceed with snow and ice removal (see MTO Recommended Treatments). The three major snow and ice removal components used in the town of Goderich are sanding, salting and plowing. These components are used in accordance with the MTO recommendations and guidelines.
 
Salt is used to reduce snow and ice build-up and prevent the ability of the snow to stick to, or pack on, pavement (Transportation Operation Branch, 1982). According to the Transportation Operation Branch (1982) the salting of roads should commence before there is an accumulation of 0.5 cm of snow on the road. It should also be applied in a narrow row (about 30 cm wide) down the centre of the road (Transportation Operation Branch, 1982). The standard rate set by the Ministry of Transportation and Communication (1977) for a two-lane road is 130 kilograms of salt per kilometre.
 
Sand is used for traction purposes on dry, hard snow or in temperatures below -12 degrees Celsius. Sand is applied more generously along a two-lane road with a spread of 2 to 2-1/2 metres at a recommended rate of 570 kg/km (Transportation Operation Branch, 1982). In Goderich, sanding is performed after plowing, and is mostly applied on remaining slippery sections (see MTO Recommended Treatments).
 
Plowing is the final  major component in the town's snow and ice removal system and it is used in most types of weather conditions. According to the Transportation Operation Branch (1982), plowing normally begins after 2 cm of snow has collected on the pavement. However, if salt has been put down on the road, the plowing should occur approximately 30 minutes later. In this way, the salt has had time to create a brine mixture that enables the snow to be more easily removed (Transportation Operation Branch, 1982).
 

13.0 Evaluation of the Sanding and Salting System

13.1 Evaluation of the University System Based on MTO Recommendations

The procedures and guidelines used in Goderich are those set out by the Government of Ontario through the Ministry of Transportation (MTO). The three elements used by MTO are also the three main elements used by Plant Operations at the University of Waterloo however, three major discrepancies exist between these two systems. These discrepancies are related to the amount of materials used, the use of a 50/50 mix by Plant Operations, and the application process at the University of Waterloo.
 
The first area of concern is that Plant Operations at the University of Waterloo is using more material than is necessary in snow and ice removal. The sand and salt truck uses between 302 and 477 kilograms of the sand and salt mixture per kilometre. Although these figures are below the MTO recommended application of sand it is well above the recommended application rate of salt. As indicated earlier in section 8.3, when using a mixture that contains over 5% salt, salt procedures and rates should be taken into account. The mix used by Plant Operations is 50% salt, as a result, salting rates should be considered when determining what quantity of the mixture should be used. Therefore the quantity of materials used by the University for snow and ice removal on roadways is in excess of those recommended by MTO.
 
With regards to the amount of sand and salt used, another potential problem may exist with the spreader used by Plant Operations. The distribution chart for the G.I.-74, G.I.-77 & G.I.-85 spreader for sand and salt indicates that the use of this type of spreader is leading to excess sand and salt being put down on roadways. The figures given in section 9.0  indicate that the use of both materials is well above the recommended rate given by the Transportation Operations Branch (1982). Sand is being spread at almost 700 kg/km instead of the recommended 577 kg/km given by MTO. Salt is applied at a rate of 466 kg/km which is well above the 130 kg/km used in Goderich. Based on the excessive amount applied in both cases, it is reasonable to assume that a sand and salt mixture put into the spreader is also being applied in excess. The use of sand and salt in excess of recommended levels lead to certain preventable environmental impacts and is a waste of material and finances.
 
The second discrepancy exists in the use of the actual sand and salt mixture. In looking at the data and procedures used by Goderich, Ontario in accordance with the Ministry of Transportation, there is concern over Plant Operations decision to use a 50/50 mixture of sand and salt. According to the recommended treatments used by the town of Goderich, sand and salt are meant for different uses (MTO Recommended Treatments). MTO recommended treatments explains that salt is used to create brine before plowing or to melt snow and ice while sand is used for traction on slippery surfaces. In combining these two materials, problems arise when only one is needed. For example, when the temperature is below -18 degrees Celsius, salt is no longer effective in melting snow or ice, so only sand should be used for traction. However, since the sand and salt are premixed, Plant Operations puts down the sand and salt mixture even when the temperature is below salt's working limit. This does not comply with MTO recommendations. The ineffective use of salt also results in added pressure on the environment.
 
The third and final concern that exists when comparing the University system to MTO recommendations is in regards to application. Custodians have mentioned that sand and salt is applied to entranceways of buildings in anticipation of a storm.  However, Plant Operations has stated that this does not occur. There is an obvious discrepancy that exists here. It should be mentioned that according to the Transportation Operation Branch (1982), per storm application should not take place. There are a number of  problems associated with sanding and salting done in anticipation of a storm. One problem is that if the storm does not take place, the materials are wasted. They are tracked into buildings and introduced into the environment causing unnecessary negative impacts. Also, if there is a considerable time lapse between application and the occurrence of a storm, materials laid down may have been tracked away from the area.  Therefore, when the snow or ice accumulates, the area will require an additional application.

In relation to application, there also exists a discrepancy in salt and plowing uses. According to the Transportation Operations Branch (1982), salt should be applied first to form brine that can be easily plowed aside later. At the University of Waterloo, plowing is done first, then the sand and salt mixture is applied. This method does not comply with the procedures and guidelines given by the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (see MTO recommended treatments).
 
13.2 Evaluation of the University System Based on Specific Criteria

In order to evaluate a system, it is important to identify specific criteria by which to measure data.  A set of three criteria was previously determined to evaluate our system (see Section 7.0).  These criteria are efficiency and effectiveness, environmental implications and decision making.

Our first set of criteria, efficiency and effectiveness was evaluated to determine whether the system made the best possible use of time and resources, in terms of monetary, human and environmental resources.  One of our objectives was to determine if the correct quantities of sand and salt were being used, according to MTO recommendations. As discussed in the previous section, Plant Operations uses an excess of sand and salt for snow and ice removal. In terms of de-icing and traction, the substances used are effective, which is the purpose of the system.  However, as stated earlier, according to MTO recommendations too much of these substances are being used, more than is necessary to achieve the system's purpose. Therefore,  reduction in use would lead to economic, human and environmental savings, without compromising effectiveness.  Finally, the usage of vehicles in the sanding and salting procedure was observed to be adequate, in terms of the number of vehicles used versus the number of vehicles needed to accomplish the task.

Our second set of criteria was an assessment of the environmental implications.  As discussed in section 5.0, sand, salt and calcium chloride all impact negatively on the biophysical environment, in terms of degrading water quality, vegetation, aquatic and terrestrial life. The most prominent problem identified was that University procedures for applying sand and salt leads to an overuse of materials, as stated above, therefore causing a greater impact on the environment. As such, a more sustainable alternative would be to adopt MTO recommendations and to use poultry grit. This would contribute to the long-term sustainability of the University of Waterloo campus.

Our third set of criteria was an assessment of the decision making system, with an emphasis on communication.  In order to determine if our criteria was being met we observed the system firsthand by riding along with Plant Operations. We found that communication between the actors of our system was very good.  Employees of Plant Operations are given an area to care for on campus and this is explained clearly to them. This clear understanding ensures that overlap of job responsibility does not occur between employees. Also, by assigning small areas for staff, key areas of concern can be pinpointed and given immediate attention. With the addition of a night shift during the winter, serious road conditions can be addressed immediately by the crew. This ensures that response time is immediate. Another visual observation that was made by riding along with Plant Operations was that trucks and tractors communicated by CB radio. This is important as it allows concerns and questions that staff may have to be addressed immediately. In the event of a snowfall or ice accumulation, which is campus-wide, the Plant Operations supervisor travels around and takes a visual observation of the situation. By travelling around the campus he is able to observe if certain areas are worse than others and ensure that employees are doing their jobs properly. Also, this increases communication between the Plant Operations main office and the grounds crews that work on campus.
 

14.0 Recommendations
 
The recommendations have been divided into four general areas, which include the application process, the use of the 50/50 sand and salt mix, storage facilities for sand and salt and the impacts of sand and salt on building interiors.

Application

50/50 Mixture Storage Facilities Impacts on Building Interiors Additional Recommendation  

15.0 Conclusion

It is important to continually monitor and evaluate the systems and procedures used at the University of Waterloo so that they can be understood in terms of sustainability and managed properly. It is also important because it will allow for changes to be made if the current system or procedures are inadequate. WATgreen and ERS 285 are part of an effort to ensure that the University of Waterloo is operating sustainably. As students of ERS 285, we are also a part of this effort. In evaluating the sanding and salting practices, we contribute to the understanding of the system and the management procedures involved, and thus contribute to the University of Waterloo's committment to sustainability.
 

16.0 Contact People

*UW Contacts

 Sheila Hurley UW Health and Safety, 888-3587
                    Sheila Hurley will help us understand Health and Safeties involvement in the sanding and salting
                    system.

Les Van Dongen Plant Operations, 888-4567 ext. 4010
                    Les Van Dongen gives us information on the current procedures used by plant operations, he
                    also has given us statistics on sand and salt usage on campus.

Patti Cook WATGreen, 888-4567 ext.3245
                    Patti Cook has given us the names of people that are involved in the system on campus and
                    also ideas for where alternative de-icing and traction  methods take place.

Tom Galloway Director of Plant Operations, 888-4567 ext. 5676
                    Tom Galloway is a good source of information on custodial and grounds maintenance
                    procedures.

 *Other Contacts

 Ed Rzeszutek University of Manitoba ed_rzeszutek@umanitoba.ca

Jerry Minler University of Western Ontario-ppdgmm@uwoadmin.uwo.ca

Frank Hergott  Waterloo Road and Storm Manager  886-2310

Chuck Neisen  Waterloo Roads Supervisor   886-2310
 

17.0 References

Chollar, Brian. A Revolution in Winter Maintenance. April, 1997.
http://www.tfhrc.gov/pubrds/winter96/p96w2.htm

Greening the Campus: ERS 285. http://www.fes.uwaterloo.ca/crs/ers285.w98/

Horticulture & Home Pest News-Deicing Materials for Slick Sidewalks and Roads. February 20, 1998
http://www.ipm.iastate.edu/ipm/hortnews/1996/12-13-1996/deice.html

Jones, Phillip (1981)."Snow and Ice Control and the Transport Environment" in Environmental Conservation 8, pg 33-37.

Kirchner, H.W. Using Deicers Correctly
http://members.mdn.net/henryk/deicers.htm
 
Ministry of Transportation and Communications (1977) "Use of Salt for Snow and Ice Control: M-703 Training Guide" Government of Ontario.

Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (MTO) De-Icer Fact Sheet. June 13, 1997
http://www.govonca3.gov.on.ca/MTO/english/transrd/rd/bulletin/fact.htm

Paddock, T & C. Lister. Academy of Natural Sciences: De-Icing Salt is here to stay, but can be used more wisely, February 1990
http://www.acnatsci.org/erd/ea/de-icing.html

Technology Corner: Impacts of Road Salting on Water Quality. Number 96-2, June 28, 1996
http://www.sr.ex.state.ut.us/res/resnews.htm

Transportation Operation Branch (1982) "Winter Operations for Snow and Ice Control by Contractors" Government of Ontario

WatGreen. http://www.adm.uwaterloo.ca/infowast/watgreen

West Virginia Department of Transportation (WVDOT) Road Salt Fact Sheet, June 13, 1997
http://www.state.wv.us./wvdot/wvdotctr/drive/winter/SALTFAX.HTM
 

  Press here to return to Sanding & Salting homepage !!