Table of Contents

 

Introduction

Background to Graphics Services

Executive Summary

Section 1.0: Sustainability

Section 1.1: Methodology

Section 2.0: Paper

    1. Resources Used
    2. Waste ManagementTechnology
    3. Recommendations

Section 3.0: Photocopiers

    1. Resources Used
    2. Waste Management
    3. Energy Efficiency
    4. Recommendations

Section 4.0: Photography

    1. Resources Used
    2. Waste Management
    3. Technology
    4. Recommendations

Section 5.0: Printing Press

    1. Resources Used
    2. Waste Management
    3. Recommendations

Section 6.0: Overall Recommendations

Bibliography

Appendix

Diagram 1.0: Systems Diagram

Diagram 1.1: Graphics Services

 

INTRODUCTION

 

The University of Waterloo is an innovative leader in approaching and solving environmental problems. As the first university in Canada to establish an on-campus project to work towards a sustainable university, Waterloo has demonstrated a unique approach to teaching and learning. On 1 October 1991, the WATGreen project was informally implemented by the Environmental Resource Studies (ERS) faculty and students in cooperation with other staff and faculty at the university as a way of improving the University’s ecological profile. The program was formally initiated on October 1, 1993 after receiving complete support from the president of the University of Waterloo, Dr. Doug Wright. WATGreen functions on the premise that the campus is a laboratory within which students are able to study the interactions taking place within its complex system. The result is a great learning experience for students and an opportunity to make positive contributions toward achieving an environmentally sustainable campus. To date the WATGreen initiative has won the Environmental Achievement Award for Innovation in the Kitchner-Waterloo area, 1992, and the General Ecology Award, 1993. A Waste Management Coordinator was hired in 1991 to examine waste management strategies across the campus and as of July 1995 representatives from each department on Waterloo's campus were asked to sit on a committee that monitors sustainability across the campus.

The WATGreen Advisory Committee is preparing, for the Executive Council, The State of the Environment Report to further the university’s environmental initiatives. To do this, the committee needs current research from all areas of the campus. Environmental Resource Studies, ERS 285 "Greening the Campus," created through the WATGreen initiative in the fall of 1991, tackles this task. Students in this class have spent the term assessing the current activities taking place on campus. Past initiatives have been examined to gain insight on the improvements the campus has made and to evaluate the current activities taking place in order to make recommendations for future objectives. The State of the Environment Report represents an opportunity for the University to strengthen its leadership role in implementing innovative and creative strategies for solving environmental problems.

Executive Summary

 

Environmental Resource and Studies (ERS) 285, meeting the criteria set by WATGreen, has set about researching the activities taking place on the University of Waterloo’s campus to assess the sustainability of the system. The following report is a research paper undertaken as a result of this sustainability initiative. The aim of the report is to examine the operational practices of Graphics Services and it’s subsidiaries in order to assess whether or not the system is sustainable. Special emphasis has been paid to paper use, photocopier use, photography, and to the management and maintenance of the printing press. The following document outlines a brief summary of the information found based on research conducted regarding the system and outlines the principle recommendations identified necessary to facilitate a sustainable system.

 

Paper:

Graphics Services and it’s subsidiaries have managed to maintain a relatively sustainable system with regards to paper use, management, and waste. The majority of the paper used by Graphics is recycled after use. Steps have been taken to minimize on the quantity of paper wasted, test copies are generally printed prior to initiating a large printing project. The following are recommendations made to refine sustainability with regards to commodity use.

 

 

Photocopiers:

The photocopiers used by Graphics are shown to have no energy saving devices installed to reduce consumption when the machines are not in use. Each copy center has a varying

quantity of copiers however there were no indications of documentation regarding the quantity of energy generally consumed by the machines. The copiers are said to use petroleum-based as well as vegetable-based inks. It has been determined that petroleum-based inks contain more chemicals hazardous to the environment and therefore skews the sustainability of the system. The following are recommendations made to improve sustainability of the copiers used by Graphics.

 

Photography:

The department of photography examined in this report is specifically limited to Pixel Pub. Research shows the copy center functions with the parameters of sustainability outlined. There are indications that all waste is handled with the necessary care it requires, hazardous waste is sent to a hazardous waste management facility, paper is recycled as opposed to trashed, and chemicals are limited to necessity. The system appears sustainable however the following recommendations are aimed at refining sustainability.

 

Printing Press:

There are four printing presses on the University of Waterloo’s campus. The presses are used for larger than average copying or printing jobs. Therefore given the presses are used for large scale copying there is a great deal of paper used. Research shows the paper used mainly by the presses is virgin paper, it is the automatic default. The presses use a great deal of very toxic chemicals in the process of printing and a large quantity of toxic cleaning solvents at the end of the process. The following are recommendations outlined to ensure the system improves all-round sustainability.

 

 

Section 1.0

METHODOLOGIES

 

The information for this project was obtained using several methods, all of which are listed below:

 

Section 2.0

PAPER

It is the most frequently used item across campus and every individual touches it on a daily basis. It’s paper! What else? Although the majority of the types of paper produced around the globe are environmentally friendly, it is definitely one item no one can live without. There are, however, alternatives that can be used instead of paper made from wood pulp. Paper using 50% hemp and 50% straw can be recycled 30 to 40 times, whereas paper made from wood pulp can only be recycled 2 to 3 times (About the Kenaf Plant pp. 2). Wood pulp paper that is bleached produces a dioxin (a chemical so toxic the government safety limits are measures in parts per billion). Organo-chlorine compounds generated from the production of paper from wood pulp are highly carcinogenic and now suspected to be the primary cause of cancer in women. It has also been reported that exposure to organo-chlorine compounds is associated with a 4 to 10-fold increase in risk of breast cancer (Alpworld is Committed to Tree Free Paper pp. 1). This resulted in a number of studies which showed that women with breast cancer tend to have higher levels of organo-chlorine compounds in their fat and blood than women without breast cancer, according to a report by Greenpeace (Alpworld is committed to Tree Free Paper pp. 1). Also, dioxin is one of the most toxic environmental poisons, and wastewater containing it is discharged frequently into river and streams by the paper mills, thus entering drinking water.

2.1 Resources Used

The University of Waterloo uses a variety of papers. The table below identifies the types of paper offered at the university, the percentage of post-consumer and/or recycled material content, and other features such as acid-free or chlorine-free paper.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 2.0 Paper Stocks available at Graphics Services

Type of Paper

% of recycled Material

% of post-consumer material

Is it chlorine-free?

Is it acid-free?

Is it laser friendly?

Other comments…

 

White Bond

50%

10%

Yes

No

Yes

 

Exact Multi-purpose Pastels

 

None

None

Yes

No

Yes

 

Exact Fibres

None

10%

Yes

No

Yes

 

Astrobright Writing

50%

10%

No

No

Yes

 

Colonial Bond Writing

None

None

Yes

No

Yes

Contains 25% cotton

(this type must be used for thesis copies

Evolution 100 Laser Writing

100%

75%

Yes

Yes

Yes

Matching #10 envelopes available

AstroparchWriting

50%

15%

No

Yes

N/A

Imitation parchment

Royal Linen Writing

50%

10%

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

Sandstone Writing

50%

25%

No

No

Yes

Matching #10 envelopes available

Royal Marble Writing

50%

25%

No

No

Yes

 

Exact Opaque Cover

20%

20%

No

No

No

Card Stock

Astrobright Cover

50%

15%

Yes

No

No

Card Stock

 

There are other different types of paper that can be ordered through Main Graphics, but the list above shows the stock available on-hand at the university. The standard stocks of the paper supplied are White Bond, Exact Multipurpose Pastels, Exact Fibres, Astrobright Writing, and Colonial Bond Writing. The stock of resume paper includes Evolution 100 Laser Writing, Astroparch Writing, and Royal Linen Writing. The Re-Seller Packs are Sandstone Writing and Royal Marble Writing. Lastly, the Card Stock, which is a heavier paper used for report covers, book covers, business cards, and tickets

Graphics Services also provide special materials such as carbonless paper, (or "no carbon required" (NCR) paper) which is available in a variety of colours and sizes with up to five separate parts. It also provides pressure sensitive papers used for labels with a permanent or removable peel and stick backing. Graphic Resources, the company that supplies paper to the University of Waterloo offers Rubicon, a tree-free paper made of 100% bamboo pulp. It sells at $69.29 per 1000 sheets. This is compared to the white bond paper the sell at a quarter of the price of Rubicon, at approximately $17.31 per 1000 sheets. The Environmental Studies Copy Centre is stocked with this tree-free paper, but is generally not popular because of the high cost.

In the 1997-1998 academic year, the University of Waterloo purchased approximately 10 million sheets of virgin paper and 27 million sheets of recycled paper. It is unknown how much of each type of paper was purchased for each type of paper indicated in Table 2.0.

2.2 Waste Management

After visiting the copy centers, the general consensus is that everything is recycled, except for envelopes and the packaging the paper comes in. This is due to the use of adhesive on the packaging. The paper is separated by colour; white into a separate recycling bin and colour paper into another recycling bin. The copy centers are very sustainable from this aspect and have little room for improvement.

The only aspect that should be explored further is double-sided photocopying which would reduce the amount of paper that is actually being used because in some cases it may not even be necessary to photocopy only on one side.

2.3 Technology

Paper has definitely evolved. Now available are many different types of tree-free papers, only one of which the University carries. These can be made from a variety of different contents and include hemp, kenaf, and even old worn currency! The following is a list of tree free paper products currently being developed and perfected, mostly in the United States of America.

The various types of tree-free paper are:

Eco Hemp is a bright off white paper. It is available in several weights of book, text, and card stock and offset sheet sizes. Hemp has a classic laid finish, reminiscent of early paper making techniques.

Kenaf is a member of the hibiscus family, related to cotton and okra. Kenaf grows quickly, reaching heights of 12 to 14 feet in as little as 4 to 5 months. It yields 6 to 10 tons of dry fibre per acre per year, generally 3 to 5 times greater than the yield for Southern pine trees.

Downtown Paper, a brand that contains 45% agri-pulp (straw), 43% post-consumer and 12% calcium carbonate filler. It is wheat straw pulped with potassium sulfite, effluent-free, and the chemicals can be recycled and used as by-products for fertilizer. Downtown Paper is a multi-purpose quality paper used in photocopying, text, cover and web roll.

Banana Fibre Paper contains 5% reclaimed banana fibres and 95% post-consumer waste. Still fairly new, the details of this type of paper were not found, but it is important to mention.

Recycled Denim Blue Jean Paper is manufactured from 100% rag-cotton from the scraps of denim. This type of tree-free paper is also in its early stages to becoming as well known has hemp and kenaf.

Coffee Bean Fibre Paper, also in its early stages, is made from coffee waste, and produces a "café au lait" colour.

Last, but definitely not least, is Old Money Paper. Currently in practise in the United States of America, this paper is made from recycled currency paper. Every year the government recalls 13 million pounds of worm currency and shreds it make paper.

Of the above mentioned tree-free papers, prices were only obtained for 3 types. They are the Hemp, Kenaf Paper and Recycled Denim Blue Jean Paper. Hemp costs approximately $7.99 In US$ per 50 sheets of paper, or 16 cents a sheet. Kenaf costs $152 in US$ per 1000 sheets or 15 cents a sheet in US$, and Recycled Denim Blue Jean Paper costs $179 in US$ per 1000 sheets or 18 cents a sheet in US$.

2.4 Recommendations

The following is a list of recommendations proposed by the group that studied the paper usage on campus. It involves looking at alternative papers as well as maintaining administrative records of the quantities of paper sold during a certain period of time.

 

Section 3.0

PHOTOCOPIERS

Photocopying plays a central role in the daily activities that occur on campus. Due to the convenience and relative low-cost of photocopying, this activity is being more widely used by both students and faculty members. While photocopiers are not generally considered dangerous pieces of equipment compared to television, monitors and microwave ovens, some types of photocopiers contain a variety of hazardous materials. The types of photocopiers used on campus as well as these issues will be discussed below.

3.1 Resources Used

Presently, a listing of the exact number and locations of each photocopier does not exist. As a result, the number and location of photocopiers on campus is unknown. Appendix 1 shows the number and type of known copiers on campus as well as the composition of the toners used. The chart shows that the components of the toners differ from copier to copier. The ten-year-old Konica printer used for larger print orders consists of greater amounts of inorganic compounds while the newer Sharp printer contains partial organic content. It was also found that all these photocopiers have the capability to easily make double-sided copies. Whether students and faculty members use this feature is another matter.

The type of paper used in self-served photocopiers across campus is White Bond paper supplied by Graphics Services. This paper is 50% recycled, 10% post-consumer, chlorine-free, and laser-friendly. Different types of paper that can be used in copy centres, if specified by the patron include coloured paper and resume paper.

There are main type of toner that are used in the photocopiers on campus is that of petroleum-based and wax-based. It was found that petroleum-based inks contain Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), which are regulated by the Clean Air Act. By replacing the petroleum distillate with a greater percentage of soy and vegetable oils, emissions of VOCs will be reduced. Most ink pigments that are used by the printing industry, including the University of Waterloo, contain high concentrations of heavy metals. When this paper is recycled, a sludge by-product is produced and is made toxic by the high concentrations of heavy metals in these inks.

Electricity is another resource consumed by photocopiers. It was found that the self-serve photocopiers use 15 amps of electricity. Bigger printers such as the Docutech require 50 amps of electricity. The newer mid- and high-volume copiers save electricity by "sleeping" when inactive. However, several older models still remain on campus that does not possess this feature and this includes the self-serve copiers for individual use. The copiers that do possess this feature are those that are operated by the staff at Copy Centres. These photocopiers also emit ozone, a gaseous pollutant which is caught by an ozone filter (Koester 1996 pp. 162). All photocopiers on campus possess an auto-duplex copying feature (a feature that allows double-sided copies to be made from single-sided or double-sided originals.

3.2 Waste Management

It was found that the staff at the Copy Centres do run test copies before printing large orders to prevent discovering errors after completion of the print job. All the waste papers that are generated from print jobs are recycled, as a result, minimal quantities of waste that can not be recycled is generated. The empty ink cartridges are collected and sent back to the company where it is properly disposed of. It should be noted, however, that there were occasions when the pick up for the ink cartridges was missed and these cartridges were merely tossed out into the garbage. Although it is thought that these cartridges are safe and contains no toxins, cartridges that compose of petroleum-based ink contain VOCs, which have the potential to cause adverse effects. Employees should be made aware of the consequence of this action.

It was also found that double-sided photocopying is not a common practice. The staff at the Copy Centres rarely promotes this practice and the one-cent price difference is not enough of an incentive to encourage double-sided photocopying. This results in the usage of an enormous amount of unnecessary paper.

Maintenance check-ups to ensure the proper functioning of the copier is not carried out regularly. Frequent checks at the Copy Centres occur only at slow times and they are primarily checking for the paper and ink levels. It is crucial that ozone filters be checked and changed as required.

3.3 Energy Efficiency

Energy saving photocopiers are another tool in waste management. The larger, higher volume copiers (primarily those operated by staff at Copy Centres), switch to a lower consuming state while not in use. This step-down of power usually occurs after 20-30 minutes after it has last been used, but it can be programmed to shut down when desired. This type of activity is more appropriate than shutting off the machine and re-starting it, which would consume a greater quantity of electricity each time it is turned on. However, this feature is only present in certain photocopiers on campus and not in small self-serve photocopiers. It was found that the self-serve photocopiers in the Math and Computer building actually has this feature due to programming initiatives carried out by math students.

Double-sided copies are more efficient and produce less waste. It takes 20-watt hours to produce a sheet of paper at the paper manufacturing plant and it takes about 2 watt-hours for a copier to put an image on one side. Therefore, double –sided copying saves approximately 20 watts per sheet; 44-watt hour to print on one side of two sheets as opposed to 24 watt-hours to print on both sides of one sheet (Keniry 1995 pp. 118). With energy savings described above, it would be more economical as well as ecological to encourage double-sided copying.

    1. Recommendations

Reviewing all the information gathered about photocopiers on campus, the following is a list of recommendations pertaining to photocopiers.

Section 4.0

PHOTOGRAPHY

There are several self-use photography centers on campus including those found in the Environmental Studies building, Fine Arts and the school newspaper office - the Imprint. These centers are very small and rely solely on human resources for developing. The newest addition of photographic service (established in December of 1998) is the Pixel Pub, which is located in the Student Life center on campus. This facility uses technologies that require very little human input. They offer KODAK 8670ps Dye Sublimation printing, thermal binding, inkjet output, colour-managed scans and burn, and imaging services. All of these options require the top of the line technologies. A full assessment of the Pixel Pub involves looking at the resources they use, the waste they create and how they dispose of it, as well as the technology they use in the processes.

4.1 Resources Used

The Pixel Pub offers a variety of services as well as retail items. All photographic materials and items come from Kodak or Truck Hall suppliers. They offer many items for sale, such as: assignment covers, folders, binders, pens, staplers, disks, film, cameras, disposable cameras and camera accessories as well as many other products. There is a Xerox Bookmark 35 photocopier that is independent of the Pub, but is located just at the front door. These items are not of as much significance as the equipment and resources actually used by the Pixel Pub, in that these items are based on consumer demand and are not specifically affected by changes to environmental practices. The management system currently used at the Pub is called the Simple Management System. It is a self-contained materials management system that houses the developing chemical in a shallow container. The container allows the paper to be completely submerged while only using approximately 2 litres of solution. This new system is significant because it reduces the amount of chemicals used per cycle to 2 litres from the previous 10 litres. The replenishing chemicals used in this developing process are changed approximately once per month. The largest amount of solution they use is the Stabilizer that cleans everything inside the machine. This solution was described as "basically a soap that could be poured down the drain" (Chris Hughes). The three main chemicals used are the Ektacolour developer RA (rapid access), the Ektacolour bleach fix used to set the colour and pull the silver out of the material, and the stabilizer solution. Kodak supplies most of the chemicals. The other inputs into the Pixel Pub include paper supplies, equipment, staff and energy. The main focus of the analysis was on the equipment, processes and the chemical use and disposal.

4.2 Waste Production/Disposal

Another key role that Kodak plays in addition to supplying materials to Pixel pub is the operation of the disposable camera recycling program. These cameras are stripped down at the site and sent back to Kodak Canada where they are refitted and put back on the shelf. The cameras can be used approximately 7 times in this fashion before they are melted down and re-made into another camera. There are only two sources of "real" garbage that is sent straight to a landfill. The first source of waste created in the facility comes from the test prints from the dye sublimation printer. This process involves coating the paper with Xtralife UV coating that protects the image from UV rays and other environmental pollutants. The process is ideal for projects by students that require the best resolution and quality available to them. The test prints that have to be thrown away because the coating is not recyclable and are approximately eight inches wide and 48 inches long. They are necessary because the image seen on the monitor that feeds to the printer is not a reliable indicator of how the image will appear. The colour and image quality need to be tested for each item to ensure the image can be in fact successfully enlarged to the desired size, and to ensure that the colours are printing properly. All of the other waste paper and cardboard is collected at the site for recycling by the university according to the waste management guidelines. The second source comes from the plastic storage bags that the chemicals come in. These bags must also be thrown away because there is no available recycling option for them. The other major material producing waste that requires disposal are the chemicals used in the process. All chemicals are picked up weekly by the University's Environmental Waste Management Facility. There are over 4000 litres of photographic wastes collected yearly from smaller photo labs on campus. The Pixel Pub only requires the stabilizer solution to be retrieved because in all large centers there is a self-contained unit on the machines that treats the chemicals. The unit treating the chemicals neutralizes them, and they are then poured down the drain. Other chemicals are also picked up from the smaller centers because they don't use the Simple Management System and all of the developing is done by hand. This requires large batches of chemicals that need to be replaced frequently. These chemicals are picked up by Chemical Stores on campus and treated at the batch facility located in the hazardous waste area on campus. The treatment process is the same as done by the units on the machines. The fixer and the developer are mixed together and neutralized. The precipitate that forms from this reaction is captured in a filter that is regularly tested and changed when required. The toxic silver is removed with an ion exchange unit and the treated solution is then dumped down the drain. There is a conductivity meter beside the drain that is used to ensure that the solution is neutral and safe for disposal down the drain. A company, GreenFlow, picks up the filters as well as the ion exchange units. The silver filters are melted down and the silver is recovered. The revenue gained from the silver recovery program is used to pay for the disposal of the rest of the filters. The entire process is entirely self-reliant - the silver pays for the disposal of the filters. There is no university policy governing the process of developing photos and therefore no control over how much waste is produced. Each individual photo lab decides on their own method of developing. All of the resources used and waste produced is completely subject to the decisions of the managers of the photography facilities.

4.3 Technology

The assessment of the technology used in the Pub was mostly limited to the equipment used in the processes. All of the equipment in the Pub is brand new with the latest technology. There are many criteria that must be met when purchasing equipment for the university. One of them deals with energy efficiency. Although it is almost impossible to find out how much energy the Pixel Pub itself uses (because it is not separate from the rest of the Student Life Center), one of the criteria when making purchasing decisions for equipment high energy efficiency.

4.4 Recommendations

The Pixel Pub seem to be quite advanced in recycling initiatives and waste production and disposal. One recommendation that can be made at this point is to implement a policy to be followed at smaller photo labs similar to that of Pixel Pub. Efforts should put into researching if the plastic chemical bags can in fact be recycled somewhere. Finally, pressure should be placed on Kodak in order to push for less-packaging of their products as well as when shipping materials. A great deal of the materials that Graphics Services receive come in unnecessary boxes that are designed primarily for inexperienced people.

Section 5.0

The Printing Press

There are four printing presses located at Main Graphics in the Central Services Complex. The difference between each machine relates to its size and speed. They all use the same chemicals and follow the same printing process. Printing presses are used when large projects, quantities of 500+, are produced, when high color quality and detail are necessary, or for anything that needs to be larger than 11 by 17 inches in size such as posters and coursenotes. Paper used by the printing press can be up to 23.5 by 18.5 inches in size. There is now one large photocopier at Main Graphics that is meant to imitate the printing press. It is designed to have excellent color quality and is able to print large numbers of copies quickly. However the quality of the photocopier print does not match the standards of the printing press. Therefore the photocopier is used for relatively quick cheap, lower quality jobs.

5.1 Resources Used

The printing press uses an enormous quantity of paper, different from that used in the photocopying process. The paper used is thicker than the normal photocopying paper and is number two and three offset, which contains 30% recycled material. Coated stock paper is primarily used for book covers due to the fact that the paper is thicker and glossier in comparison to the other types used by Graphics. However, this paper only contains a maximum of 10% recycled material.

The printing press uses a significant amount of chemicals, although it is much improved from a decade ago. The printing process involves the use of film negatives onto which the original text or image is transferred. Rubber printing plates are used to transfer the image from the negative to the plate. A vegetable-based ink and a solution containing water, etch, and fountain solution run across the plate where the image attracts the ink and repels the solution. Some fountain solutions contain 5 to 25 % isopropyl alcohol, which is considered a volatile organic compound (VOC). The fountain solution used by Main Graphics is slightly better since it uses an alcohol substitute (Uni-Alcofount-1) which is safer than alcohol and does not evaporate as quickly, although Uni-Alcofount-1 is not an inert chemical.

The paper passes between a rubber blanket and an impression cylinder, which gently presses the image onto the sheet. Solvents are used to remove the ink from these rubber press rollers and a blanket and roller wash are use to clean the rubber plates. The solvents used contain naphtha. A thorough cleaning is needed especially when moving from darker to lighter inks, such as the move from blue to yellow. Main Graphics does use a stronger solvent whenever necessary, especially in situations where lighter and darker inks are involved. Unfortunately, the stronger solvents do contain an extremely high VOC content.

Occasionally, approximately once a year, a job will not or can not be completed in a single day. In situations such as these, Main Graphics use an end of the day preserver that allows Graphics to use the plates the next day foregoing the cleaning process. The preserver is made up of mineral spirits.

5.2 Waste Management

Graphics Services recycles much of the materials used in the printing process. The rubber printing plates are recycled and can be reused 5 to 6 times. Silver is extracted from the film negatives and given to the Hazardous Waste Facility on campus to be recycled. It is important to note that the quantity of negatives is greater at Main Graphics than at the Pixel Pub.

There is usually a small quantity of ink remaining in the cartridge that is disposed of in the Hazardous Waste Facility. Presently Graphics claims, there is not enough ink remaining to warrant a reuse program. The companies who collect waste ink require at least three large barrels of the substance before initiating a pick up program. Based on the information gathered from Graphics, it would take approximately 3 to 5 years to gather enough ink at Graphics Services for a recycling company to even consider picking it up.

All chemical waste generated by Graphics is sent to the Hazardous Waste Facility, including solvents that have been phased out, solvent waste, and leftover ink.

A large quantity of paper waste is generated by the printing press, approximately 5-10% from sheet trimming. The layout of the document is centered on the page and the edges are trimmed off because the color tends to bleed at the edges. Approximately 2-3% of the waste is as a result of the test copies used to ensure the exact color composition on large orders. On an order of 10, 000 pages, it is estimated to require approximately 100-150 sheets to set the color right. Human error and general mistakes account for an additional 1-3% of the paper waste stream generated by the printing press.

Small paper trimmings are recycled. Extra scraps, of reasonable size, form all print jobs are placed in a specific box. The box, when full, is sent off to the daycare centres on campus. It takes approximately 4 months to generate enough paper waste to full the box.

In the situation where a document is printed and the customer notices a mistake, either theirs or the printer’s, after the fact, Main Graphics will use the paper to create note pads as per the customer’s request. The customers who utilize this service tend to be facilities and departments given they are aware of the option.

All paper waste is picked up by Plant Operations and taken to Central Stores to be recycled.

 

5.3 Recommendations

Solvents that contain VOC’s are used to clean press rollers. While there are no current substitutes, there are ways to reduce the waste generated.

 

 

 

Appendix 1

Photocopiers and Toner Components on Campus

Photocopier

 

Number on Campus

Toner Components

Toner Composition

Konica

22

Polyester-Resin

Carbon

Two types of Wax:

Silica

Titanium Dioxide

 

3.5 mg

10 mg

10 mg

Sharp

16

Polystyrene

Styrene-Acriliate Copolymer

Carbon

Ammonium: Organic Salt

Polypropylene

60%

30%

6%

3%

2%

Xerox

4

Unknown

Unknown

 

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Brene, Steve. Math and Computer Photocopy Supervisor, March 12, 1999, 2:00 p.m, 60 minutes.

 

Cossins, Paul. Math and Computers, March 15, 1999., 4:30 p.m., 90 minutes.

Fraser, Ian: Toxic Waste Co-ordinator of University of Waterloo, March 2, 1999, 10:30 a.m., 15 minutes, (519) 888-4567.

Frieburger, Bill: Pressroom Supervisor, Main Graphics, University of Waterloo, March 26, 1999, 2:00 p.m, 65 min, (519) 888-4567 ext. 6295

Hughes, Chris: Manager of Pixel Pub, March 2, 1999, 10:00 a.m., 30 minutes. (519)888-4567 Ext. 6807.

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